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MORPHOLOGY AND MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY OF ANKISTRODINIUM GEN. NOV. (DINOPHYCEAE), A NEW GENUS OF MARINE SAND-DWELLING DINOFLAGELLATES FORMERLY CLASSIFIED WITHIN AMPHIDINIUM1
Article first published online: 25 JUN 2012
© 2012 Phycological Society of America
Journal of Phycology
Volume 48, Issue 5, pages 1143–1152, October 2012
How to Cite
Hoppenrath, M., Murray, S., Sparmann, S. F. and Leander, B. S. (2012), MORPHOLOGY AND MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY OF ANKISTRODINIUM GEN. NOV. (DINOPHYCEAE), A NEW GENUS OF MARINE SAND-DWELLING DINOFLAGELLATES FORMERLY CLASSIFIED WITHIN AMPHIDINIUM. Journal of Phycology, 48: 1143–1152. doi: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2012.01198.x
Received 17 August 2011. Accepted 12 February 2012.
- Issue published online: 4 OCT 2012
- Article first published online: 25 JUN 2012
- Accepted manuscript online: 26 MAY 2012 10:03AM EST
- Amphidinium s.l.;
- A. semilunatum;
- LSU rDNA;
- SSU rDNA;
The classical athecate dinoflagellate genera (Amphidinium, Gymnodinium, Gyrodinium) have long been recognized to be polyphyletic. Amphidinium sensu lato is the most diverse of all marine benthic dinoflagellate genera; however, following the redefinition of this genus ∼100 species remain now of uncertain or unknown generic affiliation. In an effort to improve our taxonomic and phylogenetic understanding of one of these species, namely Amphidinium semilunatum, we re-investigated organisms from several distant sites around the world using light and scanning electron microscopy and molecular phylogenetic methods. Our results enabled us to describe this species within a new heterotrophic genus, Ankistrodinium. Cells of A. semilunatum were strongly laterally flattened, rounded-quadrangular to oval in lateral view, and possessed a small asymmetrical epicone. The sulcus was wide and characteristically deeply incised on the hypocone running around the antapex and reaching the dorsal side. The straight acrobase with hook-shaped end started at the sulcal extension and continued onto the epicone. The molecular phylogenetic results clearly showed that A. semilunatum is a distinct taxon and is only distantly related to species within the genus Amphidinium sensu stricto. The nearest sister group to Ankistrodinium could not be reliably determined.