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Adolescent sons of alcoholics, equated to sons of nonalcoholics on age, intelligence, and grade level, performed significantly more poorly on a standardized test of educational achievement Family environment and rated behavioral disturbance were not systematically correlated with educational achievement. Upon controlling for the effects of psychopathology, the highest and most numerous correlations were found between neuropsychological performance and educational achievement These findings suggest that cognitive impairment may be associated with the vulnerability for alcoholism.