Adenylyl cyclase activity was determined in membranes from wild-type S49 murine lymphoma cells that had been exposed to ethanol for 4 hr. Mn-, NaF-, and forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activities of cells—pretreated with cycloheximide, puromycin, or serum deprivation—were significantly decreased by treatment with 50 mM of ethanol. As demonstrated for Mn-stimulated activity, the decrease was dose-dependent on ethanol and was temporal; a normal activity recovered after 16–24 hr treatment, even in the presence of cycloheximide and ethanol. Studies with a cell-free membrane system of S49 cells revealed a similar activity decrease after treatment of the membranes with ethanol. In contrast, cells treated with 50 mM of ethanol in a regular culture condition showed no decrease in adenylyl cyclase activity over 24 hr. These results indicate that ethanol regulation of adenylyl cyclase activity in S49 cells depends on reduced or impaired protein synthesis.