Frontal Lobe Volume Loss Observed with Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Older Chronic Alcoholics

Authors

  • Adolf Pfefferbaum,

    Corresponding author
    1. Center for Health Sciences (A.P., E.V.S.), SRI International, Menlo Park, California; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences (A.P., E.V.S., D.H.M., K.O.L.), Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California; and the Psychiatry Service (K.O.L.), VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California.
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  • Edith V. Sullivan,

    1. Center for Health Sciences (A.P., E.V.S.), SRI International, Menlo Park, California; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences (A.P., E.V.S., D.H.M., K.O.L.), Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California; and the Psychiatry Service (K.O.L.), VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California.
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  • Daniel H. Mathalon,

    1. Center for Health Sciences (A.P., E.V.S.), SRI International, Menlo Park, California; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences (A.P., E.V.S., D.H.M., K.O.L.), Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California; and the Psychiatry Service (K.O.L.), VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California.
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  • Kelvin O. Lim

    1. Center for Health Sciences (A.P., E.V.S.), SRI International, Menlo Park, California; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences (A.P., E.V.S., D.H.M., K.O.L.), Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California; and the Psychiatry Service (K.O.L.), VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California.
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  • This research was supported by the National Institutes of Health Grants AA05965, AA10723, MH30854, and by the Department of Veterans Affairs. A partial Report of these data was presented at the Research Society on Alcoholism annual meeting, Washington, D.C., June 1996.

Reprint requests: Adolf Pfefferbaum, M.D., Center for Health Sciences (BN 115), SRI International, 333 Ravenswood Avenue, Menlo Park, CA 94025.

Abstract

This study used magnetic resonance imaging to quantify the extent and pattern of tissue volume deficit and cerebrospinal fluid volume enlargement in younger versus older chronic alcoholics relative to normal controls. In the present analysis, we divided our previously reported group of 62 alcoholic men into a younger group (n = 33, age mean = 37.5 ± 4.5, and range = 26 to 44 years) and an older group (n= 29, age mean = 52.7 ± 6.0, and range = 45 to 63 years) to examine whether, in addition to extent, the two age groups differed in pattern of tissue type and regional brain volume abnormalities quantified with magnetic resonance imaging. Brain volumes were adjusted for normal variation in head size and age established from a group of healthy controls and were expressed as Z-scores. The younger group had significant cortical gray, but not white, matter volume deficits and sulcal and ventricular enlargement relative to age-matched controls. The older group had volume deficits in both cortical gray and white matter and sulcal and ventricular enlargement that significantly exceeded the younger alcoholic group. An analysis of six cortical regions revealed that, although both age groups had gray matter volume deficits throughout the cortex, the older alcoholic group had a selectively more severe deficit in prefrontal gray matter relative to the younger alcoholic group. Similarly, the cortical white matter volume deficit in the older alcoholics was especially severe in the prefrontal and frontal regions. The differences in brain dysmorphology between the two alcoholic groups cannot easily be attributed to potential alcohol history differences typically related to age because the two groups had similar disease durations and amounts of lifetime alcohol consumption. These results provide in vivo evidence that the frontal lobes are especially vulnerable to chronic alcoholism in older men.

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