Alcohol and J-Shaped Curves

Authors

  • Sven Andréasson

    Corresponding author
    1. From the Karolinska Institute, St. Görans Hospital, Psychiam'c Clinic for Addiction, Stockholm, Sweden.
      Reprint requests: Sven Andréasson, M.D., Ph.D., Karolinsh Institute, St. Gorans Hospital, Psychiatric Clinic for Addiction, Box 125 57, 102 29 Stockholm, Sweden.
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Reprint requests: Sven Andréasson, M.D., Ph.D., Karolinsh Institute, St. Gorans Hospital, Psychiatric Clinic for Addiction, Box 125 57, 102 29 Stockholm, Sweden.

Abstract

Many studies report J- or U-shaped curves in describing the association between level of alcohol consumption and mortality. J-shaped curves may, however, be the result of complex associations between psychosocial and other confounding factors and health, rather than a simple causal association derived from the biological effects of alcohol. In this review, nine methodological issues are discussed: age and sex, causes of death, characteristics of abstainers, drinking pattern, smoking, diet, physical activity, social support and personality, and psychopathology.

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