This work was supported by the National March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation, Awards #96-0915 and #98-0402, NIH Award #AA11085, and EHS Center Grant Award #ES09090.
Avian Genetic Background Modulates the Neural Crest Apoptosis Induced by Ethanol Exposure
Article first published online: 30 MAY 2006
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research
Volume 24, Issue 3, pages 307–314, March 2000
How to Cite
Debelak, K. A. and Smith, S. M. (2000), Avian Genetic Background Modulates the Neural Crest Apoptosis Induced by Ethanol Exposure. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 24: 307–314. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2000.tb04612.x
- Issue published online: 30 MAY 2006
- Article first published online: 30 MAY 2006
- Received for publication November 15, 1999; accepted January 10, 2000
- Prenatal Alcohol Exposure;
- Neural Crest Apoptosis;
- Chicken Embryo
Background: Ethanol-induced neural crest apoptosis likely contributes to the distinctive craniofacial phenotype that results from prenatal alcohol exposure. The mechanism responsible for this apoptosis is incompletely understood. A serendipitous change in poultry production flocks led to the discovery that, in chick, the embryo's genetic background modulates its susceptibility to ethanol-induced apoptosis.
Methods: We examined the level of ethanol-induced neural crest apoptosis in 11 chick layer strains or crosses, using acridine orange uptake.
Results: Holding the ethanol dose and exposure stage constant, strains were classified into very sensitive (Babcock ISA, HyLine W98, Babcock B300/Hampshire Red cross [BxHR]), moderately sensitive (Spafas, HyLine W36, Babcock B300), and nonresponsive (DeKalb White and Black, Shaver White and 2000, DeKalb White/Hampshire Red cross). Detailed examination of two susceptible strains (W98, BxHR) and a resistant strain (DeKalb White) revealed that the DeKalb's nonresponse was not caused by a shift in; timing of apoptosis, or to a lower alcohol exposure at either time of injection or time of death. Strains had identical stage distributions at the time of injection and at apoptosis; housing and diet were held constant.
Conclusions: Factors within the embryo and/or egg environment can affect the susceptibility to ethanol-induced apoptosis. These sensitive and resistant strains will be important tools to dissect the molecular mechanism of ethanol-induced apoptosis, and for understanding how these losses affect subsequent development.