The 3′ Part of the Dopamine Transporter Gene DAT1/SLC6A3 Is Associated With Withdrawal Seizures in Patients With Alcohol Dependence

Authors

  • Yann Le Strat,

    1. From the INSERM U675, IFR02, Faculté de Médecine Xavier Bichat/Université (YLS, NR, VB, CB, PG), Henri Huchard, Paris, France; AP-HP, Service de Psychiatrie Hôpital Louis Mourier (YLS, PP, JA), Colombes, France; AP-HP, Service de médecine interne alcoologie (H-JA), Limeil Brevannes cedex, France; and AP-HP, Unité de Traitement ambulatoire des Maladies Addictives (UTAMA) (PB), Clichy, France
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  • Nicolas Ramoz,

    1. From the INSERM U675, IFR02, Faculté de Médecine Xavier Bichat/Université (YLS, NR, VB, CB, PG), Henri Huchard, Paris, France; AP-HP, Service de Psychiatrie Hôpital Louis Mourier (YLS, PP, JA), Colombes, France; AP-HP, Service de médecine interne alcoologie (H-JA), Limeil Brevannes cedex, France; and AP-HP, Unité de Traitement ambulatoire des Maladies Addictives (UTAMA) (PB), Clichy, France
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  • Paul Pickering,

    1. From the INSERM U675, IFR02, Faculté de Médecine Xavier Bichat/Université (YLS, NR, VB, CB, PG), Henri Huchard, Paris, France; AP-HP, Service de Psychiatrie Hôpital Louis Mourier (YLS, PP, JA), Colombes, France; AP-HP, Service de médecine interne alcoologie (H-JA), Limeil Brevannes cedex, France; and AP-HP, Unité de Traitement ambulatoire des Maladies Addictives (UTAMA) (PB), Clichy, France
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  • Virginie Burger,

    1. From the INSERM U675, IFR02, Faculté de Médecine Xavier Bichat/Université (YLS, NR, VB, CB, PG), Henri Huchard, Paris, France; AP-HP, Service de Psychiatrie Hôpital Louis Mourier (YLS, PP, JA), Colombes, France; AP-HP, Service de médecine interne alcoologie (H-JA), Limeil Brevannes cedex, France; and AP-HP, Unité de Traitement ambulatoire des Maladies Addictives (UTAMA) (PB), Clichy, France
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  • Claudette Boni,

    1. From the INSERM U675, IFR02, Faculté de Médecine Xavier Bichat/Université (YLS, NR, VB, CB, PG), Henri Huchard, Paris, France; AP-HP, Service de Psychiatrie Hôpital Louis Mourier (YLS, PP, JA), Colombes, France; AP-HP, Service de médecine interne alcoologie (H-JA), Limeil Brevannes cedex, France; and AP-HP, Unité de Traitement ambulatoire des Maladies Addictives (UTAMA) (PB), Clichy, France
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  • Henri-Jean Aubin,

    1. From the INSERM U675, IFR02, Faculté de Médecine Xavier Bichat/Université (YLS, NR, VB, CB, PG), Henri Huchard, Paris, France; AP-HP, Service de Psychiatrie Hôpital Louis Mourier (YLS, PP, JA), Colombes, France; AP-HP, Service de médecine interne alcoologie (H-JA), Limeil Brevannes cedex, France; and AP-HP, Unité de Traitement ambulatoire des Maladies Addictives (UTAMA) (PB), Clichy, France
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  • Jean Adès,

    1. From the INSERM U675, IFR02, Faculté de Médecine Xavier Bichat/Université (YLS, NR, VB, CB, PG), Henri Huchard, Paris, France; AP-HP, Service de Psychiatrie Hôpital Louis Mourier (YLS, PP, JA), Colombes, France; AP-HP, Service de médecine interne alcoologie (H-JA), Limeil Brevannes cedex, France; and AP-HP, Unité de Traitement ambulatoire des Maladies Addictives (UTAMA) (PB), Clichy, France
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  • Philippe Batel,

    1. From the INSERM U675, IFR02, Faculté de Médecine Xavier Bichat/Université (YLS, NR, VB, CB, PG), Henri Huchard, Paris, France; AP-HP, Service de Psychiatrie Hôpital Louis Mourier (YLS, PP, JA), Colombes, France; AP-HP, Service de médecine interne alcoologie (H-JA), Limeil Brevannes cedex, France; and AP-HP, Unité de Traitement ambulatoire des Maladies Addictives (UTAMA) (PB), Clichy, France
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  • Philip Gorwood

    1. From the INSERM U675, IFR02, Faculté de Médecine Xavier Bichat/Université (YLS, NR, VB, CB, PG), Henri Huchard, Paris, France; AP-HP, Service de Psychiatrie Hôpital Louis Mourier (YLS, PP, JA), Colombes, France; AP-HP, Service de médecine interne alcoologie (H-JA), Limeil Brevannes cedex, France; and AP-HP, Unité de Traitement ambulatoire des Maladies Addictives (UTAMA) (PB), Clichy, France
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Reprint requests: Professor Philip Gorwood, MD PhD, INSERM U675 (Faculty Bichat), 16 rue Henri Huchard, Paris 75018, France; Fax: 33-1-44-85-63-48; E-mail: philip.gorwood@bichat.inserm.fr

Abstract

Background:  Some studies have reported that the A9 allele of the variable nucleotide tandem repeat (VNTR) of the gene which encodes the dopamine transporter (DAT1/SLC6A3) is associated with alcoholism withdrawal symptoms such as alcohol withdrawal seizures (WSs), whereas others did not. We investigated whether polymorphisms within the DAT1 gene are associated with WS taking into account some of the confounding factors such as the severity of alcohol dependence.

Methods:  To further assess the role of this gene in WS, we genotyped the VNTR and 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) encompassing the DAT1 gene in a sample of 250 alcohol-dependent subjects (175 men and 75 women), of whom 24% exhibited WSs, taking into account the severity of alcohol dependence.

Results:  The VNTR is associated with an increased risk of WSs (odd ratio = 3.5; p = 0.019), even when controlling for confounding factors (p = 0.031). As 2 SNPs, in roughly the same location of the gene (namely rs27072 and rs27048), are also associated with WSs, it is possible that the initial association of the VNTR polymorphism was tagging a specific haplotype of this gene. Indeed, in our sample of alcohol-dependent patients, 2 haplotypes were associated with a significantly different risk of WSs.

Conclusions:  The present study adds evidence for a significant role of the 3′ part of the DAT1 gene in WS of alcohol-dependent patients, not only because it is in accordance with previous work, but also because of larger statistical power (as relying on a sample over sampled with the studied phenotype), as it gives a more precise analysis of different SNPs within the DAT1 gene, and as it confirms the association when major potentially confounding factors are taken into account in a logistical regression analysis.

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