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Diffusion Tensor Measures of the Corpus Callosum in Adolescents With Adolescent Onset Alcohol Use Disorders

Authors

  • Michael D. De Bellis,

    1. From the Duke Healthy Childhood Brain Development and Developmental Traumatology Research Program, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, North Carolina (MDDB, EVV, SRH); Department of Psychiatry and The Clinical Center for the Study of Development and Learning, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, North Carolina (SRH); University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Ohio (NG); Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, North Carolina (LN); Rho Inc., Chapel Hill, North Carolina (SGH); Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Neuropsychiatric Imaging Research Laboratory, Duke University Medical Center, North Carolina (MEP); and Department of Psychiatry, Radiology, and the Neuropsychiatric Imaging Laboratory, Duke University Medical Center, North Carolina (JM).
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  • Elizabeth Van Voorhees,

    1. From the Duke Healthy Childhood Brain Development and Developmental Traumatology Research Program, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, North Carolina (MDDB, EVV, SRH); Department of Psychiatry and The Clinical Center for the Study of Development and Learning, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, North Carolina (SRH); University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Ohio (NG); Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, North Carolina (LN); Rho Inc., Chapel Hill, North Carolina (SGH); Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Neuropsychiatric Imaging Research Laboratory, Duke University Medical Center, North Carolina (MEP); and Department of Psychiatry, Radiology, and the Neuropsychiatric Imaging Laboratory, Duke University Medical Center, North Carolina (JM).
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  • Stephen R. Hooper,

    1. From the Duke Healthy Childhood Brain Development and Developmental Traumatology Research Program, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, North Carolina (MDDB, EVV, SRH); Department of Psychiatry and The Clinical Center for the Study of Development and Learning, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, North Carolina (SRH); University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Ohio (NG); Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, North Carolina (LN); Rho Inc., Chapel Hill, North Carolina (SGH); Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Neuropsychiatric Imaging Research Laboratory, Duke University Medical Center, North Carolina (MEP); and Department of Psychiatry, Radiology, and the Neuropsychiatric Imaging Laboratory, Duke University Medical Center, North Carolina (JM).
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  • Nicole Gibler,

    1. From the Duke Healthy Childhood Brain Development and Developmental Traumatology Research Program, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, North Carolina (MDDB, EVV, SRH); Department of Psychiatry and The Clinical Center for the Study of Development and Learning, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, North Carolina (SRH); University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Ohio (NG); Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, North Carolina (LN); Rho Inc., Chapel Hill, North Carolina (SGH); Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Neuropsychiatric Imaging Research Laboratory, Duke University Medical Center, North Carolina (MEP); and Department of Psychiatry, Radiology, and the Neuropsychiatric Imaging Laboratory, Duke University Medical Center, North Carolina (JM).
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  • Lauren Nelson,

    1. From the Duke Healthy Childhood Brain Development and Developmental Traumatology Research Program, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, North Carolina (MDDB, EVV, SRH); Department of Psychiatry and The Clinical Center for the Study of Development and Learning, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, North Carolina (SRH); University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Ohio (NG); Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, North Carolina (LN); Rho Inc., Chapel Hill, North Carolina (SGH); Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Neuropsychiatric Imaging Research Laboratory, Duke University Medical Center, North Carolina (MEP); and Department of Psychiatry, Radiology, and the Neuropsychiatric Imaging Laboratory, Duke University Medical Center, North Carolina (JM).
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  • Steve G. Hege,

    1. From the Duke Healthy Childhood Brain Development and Developmental Traumatology Research Program, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, North Carolina (MDDB, EVV, SRH); Department of Psychiatry and The Clinical Center for the Study of Development and Learning, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, North Carolina (SRH); University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Ohio (NG); Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, North Carolina (LN); Rho Inc., Chapel Hill, North Carolina (SGH); Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Neuropsychiatric Imaging Research Laboratory, Duke University Medical Center, North Carolina (MEP); and Department of Psychiatry, Radiology, and the Neuropsychiatric Imaging Laboratory, Duke University Medical Center, North Carolina (JM).
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  • Martha E. Payne,

    1. From the Duke Healthy Childhood Brain Development and Developmental Traumatology Research Program, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, North Carolina (MDDB, EVV, SRH); Department of Psychiatry and The Clinical Center for the Study of Development and Learning, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, North Carolina (SRH); University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Ohio (NG); Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, North Carolina (LN); Rho Inc., Chapel Hill, North Carolina (SGH); Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Neuropsychiatric Imaging Research Laboratory, Duke University Medical Center, North Carolina (MEP); and Department of Psychiatry, Radiology, and the Neuropsychiatric Imaging Laboratory, Duke University Medical Center, North Carolina (JM).
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  • James MacFall

    1. From the Duke Healthy Childhood Brain Development and Developmental Traumatology Research Program, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, North Carolina (MDDB, EVV, SRH); Department of Psychiatry and The Clinical Center for the Study of Development and Learning, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, North Carolina (SRH); University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Ohio (NG); Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, North Carolina (LN); Rho Inc., Chapel Hill, North Carolina (SGH); Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Neuropsychiatric Imaging Research Laboratory, Duke University Medical Center, North Carolina (MEP); and Department of Psychiatry, Radiology, and the Neuropsychiatric Imaging Laboratory, Duke University Medical Center, North Carolina (JM).
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Reprint requests: Michael D. De Bellis MD, MPH, Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Director Healthy Childhood Brain Development and Developmental Traumatology Research Program, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3613, Durham NC, 27710; Fax: 919-419-0165; E-mail: debel002@mc.duke.edu

Abstract

Background:  In adults, myelination injury is associated with alcoholism. Maturation of the corpus callosum is prominent during adolescence. We hypothesized that subjects with adolescent-onset alcohol use disorders (AUD; defined as Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV alcohol dependence or abuse) would have myelination mircostructural differences compared to controls.

Methods:  Adolescent subjects (25 males, 7 females) with an AUD (16.9 ± 1.2 years), who were recruited from substance abuse treatment programs and had co-morbid mental disorders, and 28 sociodemographically similar healthy controls (17 males, 11 females; 15.9 ± 1.1 years) underwent a 3.0 T MRI diffusion tensor imaging scan.

Results:  Measures of rostral body fractional anisotropy (FA) were higher in the AUD group than in the control group. Compared to controls, mean diffusivity (MD) was lower, while FA was higher, in the AUD group in the isthmus region. Anterior corpus callosum mircostructural development differed in adolescents with AUD, as age was positively (not negatively) associated with rostrum MD and age was negatively (not positively) associated with rostrum FA. There were sex by group interactions in that control females had higher posterior midbody FA when compared to female adolescents with AUD.

Conclusions:  Lower MD and higher FA values in the AUD group suggest pre-morbid vulnerability for accelerated prefrontal and temporo-parietal myelin maturation that may enhance the risk for adolescent AUD. Significant (and opposite to developmentally expected) correlations were seen between anterior corpus callosum MD and FA measures and age in the AUD group, suggesting neurotoxic effects of alcohol on adolescent corpus callosum microstructure. As seen in adults, female adolescents with AUD may be especially vulnerable to corpus callosum mircostructural injury. Further diffusion tensor imaging studies of corpus callosum maturation in children at familial risk for alcoholism, and in those with AUD, need to be done to elucidate these mechanisms.

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