• Paraventricular Nucleus;
  • Hypothalamus;
  • Opioids;
  • Ethanol;
  • Rat

Background:  Specialized hypothalamic systems that increase food intake might also increase ethanol intake. To test this possibility, morphine and receptor-specific opioid agonists were microinjected in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of rats that had learned to drink ethanol. To cross-validate the results, naloxone methiodide (m-naloxone), an opioid antagonist, was microinjected with the expectation that it would have the opposite effect of morphine and the specific opioid agonists.

Methods:  Sprague–Dawley rats were trained, without sugar, to drink 4 or 7% ethanol and were then implanted with chronic brain cannulas aimed at the PVN. After recovery, those drinking 7% ethanol, with food and water available, were injected with 2 doses each of morphine or m-naloxone. To test for receptor specificity, 2 doses each of the μ-receptor agonist [d-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-Enkephalin (DAMGO), δ-receptor agonist d-Ala-Gly-Phe-Met-NH2 (DALA), or κ-receptor agonist U-50,488H were injected. DAMGO was also tested in rats drinking 4% ethanol without food or water available. As an anatomical control for drug reflux, injections were made 2 mm dorsal to the PVN.

Results:  A main result was a significant increase in ethanol intake induced by PVN injection of morphine. The opposite effect was produced by m-naloxone. The effects of morphine and m-naloxone were exclusively on intake of ethanol, even though food and water were freely available. In the analysis with specific receptor agonists, PVN injection of the δ-agonist DALA significantly increased 7% ethanol intake without affecting food or water intake. This is in contrast to the κ-agonist U-50,488H, which decreased ethanol intake, and the μ-agonist DAMGO, which had no effect on ethanol intake in the presence or absence of food and water. In the anatomical control location 2 mm dorsal to the PVN, no drug caused any significant changes in ethanol, food, or water intake, providing evidence that the active site was close to the cannula tip.

Conclusions:  The δ-opioid receptor agonist in the PVN increased ethanol intake in strong preference over food and water, while the κ-opioid agonist suppressed ethanol intake. Prior studies show that learning to drink ethanol stimulates PVN expression and production of the peptides enkephalin and dynorphin, which are endogenous agonists for the δ- and κ-receptors, respectively. These results suggest that enkephalin via the δ-opioid system can function locally within a positive feedback circuit to cause ethanol intake to escalate and ultimately contribute to the abuse of ethanol. This is in contrast to dynorphin via the κ-opioid system, which may act to counter this escalation. Naltrexone therapy for alcoholism may act, in part, by blocking the enkephalin-triggered positive feedback cycle.