The Unfolding Web of Innate Immune Dysregulation in Alcoholic Liver Injury
Article first published online: 1 FEB 2011
Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research
Volume 35, Issue 5, pages 782–786, May 2011
How to Cite
Szabo, G., Mandrekar, P., Petrasek, J. and Catalano, D. (2011), The Unfolding Web of Innate Immune Dysregulation in Alcoholic Liver Injury. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 35: 782–786. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2010.01398.x
- Issue published online: 26 APR 2011
- Article first published online: 1 FEB 2011
- Received for publication April 6, 2010; accepted September 9, 2010.
- Toll-Like Receptor 4;
- Interferon Regulatory Factor 3;
- Kupffer Cells
Inflammatory cell and cytokine cascade activation is present in humans with alcoholic liver disease as well as in animal models of alcohol-induced liver damage. Gut-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a ligand of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), plays a central role in triggering and maintaining activation of Kupffer cells in alcoholic hepatitis. In this mini-review, we describe molecular mechanisms that lead to increased inflammatory cell activation by alcohol and LPS and discuss the mechanism for activation in alcohol-exposed macrophages. In alcohol-induced liver disease we discuss the role of MyD88-independent but IRF3-mediated TLR4 signaling in alcohol-related liver inflammation and liver damage.