Alcohol is a widely abused substance and is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The precise mechanisms underlying ethanol (EtOH)'s actions in the central nervous system (CNS) remain elusive. In vitro studies suggest that GABAergic interneurons are important targets of EtOH action in the CNS. Although EtOH generally acts to inhibit CNS neurons, it appears to cause an increase in GABAergic interneuron excitability. However, it has yet to be demonstrated that EtOH produces this effect in the brain of behaving animals. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that acute EtOH exposure excites a subtype of GABAergic interneuron (cerebellar Golgi cell [GoC]) in a freely moving animal.