Ethanol-Induced Memory Impairment in a Discriminative Avoidance Task is State-Dependent

Authors

  • Leandro Sanday,

    1. Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Camilla L. Patti,

    1. Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil
    2. Departamento de Psicobiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Karina A. Zanin,

    Corresponding author
    1. Departamento de Psicobiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil
    • Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Luciano Fernandes-Santos,

    1. Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil
    2. Departamento de Psicobiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Larissa C. Oliveira,

    1. Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Sonia R. Kameda,

    1. Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil
    2. Departamento de Psicobiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Sergio Tufik,

    1. Departamento de Psicobiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Roberto Frussa-Filho

    Corresponding author
    1. Departamento de Psicobiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil
    • Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil
    Search for more papers by this author

  • The first two authors contributed equally to this study.

Reprint requests: Roberto Frussa-Filho, PhD or Karina A. Zanin, Departamento de Farmacologia, UNIFESP, Rua Botucatu, 862, Ed. Leal Prado, 1º Andar, 04023062, São Paulo, SP, Brasil; Tel.: +55-11-5549-4122; Fax: +55-11-5549-4122 r. 222; E-mail: frussa.farm@epm.br or karina.zanin@unifesp.br

Abstract

Background

A considerable amount of experimental evidence has demonstrated ethanol (EtOH) induced amnestic effects following EtOH administration during pretraining in a variety of tasks both in humans and in laboratory animals. Although the phenomenon of state-dependency is known to play a critical role in memory deficits induced by both pharmacological and nonpharmacological pretraining perturbations, the involvement of this phenomenon in EtOH-induced anterograde amnesia has been overlooked. This study aimed to investigate the role of state-dependency in EtOH-induced amnestic effects and its interactions with the well-known anxiolysis and locomotor alterations.

Methods

Mice were treated with 1.2 or 2.4 g/kg EtOH before training and/or before testing in the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task, an animal model that concomitantly evaluates learning, memory, anxiety-like behavior, and general activity.

Results

Whereas both doses of EtOH induced anxiolysis, the 1.2 g/kg dose enhanced locomotion while the 2.4 g/kg dose decreased it. In addition, the administration of 1.2 g/kg of this drug during pretraining caused memory impairment, which was counteracted by the pretest administration of the same dose, revealing the participation of the state-dependency. Conversely, the administration of 2.4 g/kg EtOH led to amnestic effects irrespective of the time of the administration (pretraining and/or pretest), eliminating the influence of state-dependency.

Conclusions

Our data demonstrate that EtOH-induced memory deficits are critically related to state-dependency, which can also be affected by the dose range. These results indicate the possible participation of EtOH-induced modifications in anxiety and motor activity levels in relation to state-dependent memory deficits.

Ancillary