SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Allport, G. (1955). Becoming: Basic considerations for a psychology of personality. New Haven , CT : Yale University Press.
  • Altheide, D., & Grimes, J. (2005). War programming: The propaganda project and the Iraq War. The Sociological Quarterly, 46, 617643.
  • American Psychological Association. (2002). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code Of Conduct. Retrieved December 28, 2009, from http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx.
  • Armistead, E. L. (Ed.). (2004). Information operations: Warfare and the hard reality of soft power. Washington , DC : Brassey's, Inc.
  • Armistead, E. L. (Ed.). (2007). Information warfare: Separating hype from reality. Washington , DC : Potomac Books.
  • Baker, J. (2007, September-October). Medical diplomacy in full-spectrum operations. Military Review, 87(5), 6773.
  • Baker, R. (2006, May-June). The decisive weapon: A brigade combat team commander's perspective on Information Operations. Military Review, 86(3), 212.
  • Bamford, J. (2005, December 1). The man who sold the war: Meet John Rendon, Bush's general in the propaganda war. Rolling Stone, 5362.
  • Barnes, J. (2008, July 7). Calling the shots on war movies. Los Angeles Times, A-1.
  • Barstow, D. (2008, April 20). Behind TV analysts, Pentagon's hidden hand. [Electronic version]. New York Times. Retrieved May 1, 2008, from http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/20/washington/20generals.html?_r=1&oref=slogin.
  • Bernays, E. (2005). Propaganda. Brooklyn : IG Publishing. (Original work published 1928).
  • Boyd, C. D. (2007, May-June). Army IO is PSYOP: Influencing more with less. Military Review, 87(3), 6775.
  • Brady, A. (2009). Mass persuasion as a means of legitimation and China's popular authoritarianism. American Behavioral Scientist, 53(3), 2009.
  • Brewer, S. (2009). Why America fights: Patriotism and war propaganda from the Philippines to Iraq. New York : Oxford University Press.
  • Caldwell, W., Murphy, D., & Menning, A. (2009, May-June). Learning to leverage new media. Military Review, 89(3), 210.
  • Chinni, D. (2007, May 11). The military's Iraq channel on YouTube. [Electronic Version]. Pew Research Center: Project for Excellence in Journalism: Understanding media in the Information Age. Retrieved June 20, 2007, from http://www.journalism.org/node/5553.
  • Cialdini, R. (2004). Influence: Science and practice (4th ed.). Boston, MA : Allyn and Bacon.
  • Cialdini, R., Demaine, L., Sagarin, B., Barrett, D., Rhoads, K., & Winter, P. (2006). Managing social norms for persuasive impact. Social Influence, 1(1), 315.
  • Claessen, E. (2007, May-June). Discouraging hearts and minds: Democracies and insurgencies. Military Review, 87(3), 97103.
  • Collings, D., & Rohozinski, R. (2008). Bullets and blogs: New media and the warfighter [Electronic version]. Carlisle , PA : U.S. Army War College Workshop Report. Retrieved December 1, 2009, from http://www.csl.army.mil/usacsl/publications/Bullets_Blogs_new_Media_warfighterWeb_20_Oct_09.pdf.
  • Collins, S. (2003, Summer). Mind games. NATO Review, 1316. Retrieved January 25, 2007, from http://www.nato.int/docu/review/2003/issue2/english/art4.html.
  • Cone, S. (2004, Fall). Democratic morality and the freedom academy debate: A conflict about institutionalizing propaganda in America, 1954–1968. American Journalism, 21(4), 1338.
  • Costanzo, M., Gerrity, E., & Lykes, M. (2007). Psychologists and the use of torture in interrogations. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 7(1), 720.
  • Cox, J. (2006, March 25). Information operations in Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom: What went wrong? Leavenworth , KS : U.S. Army Command and General Staff College.
  • Crawley, J. (2005, June 10). Psychological warfare effort to be outsourced: Army command hires three firms to sway Afghans and Iraqis. Richmond Times. Retrieved December 26, 2006, from http://www.timesdispatch.com website.
  • Curnalia, R. (2005, October). A retrospective on early studies of propaganda and suggestions for reviving the paradigm. The Review of Communication, 5(4), 237257.
  • Darley, W. (2007). The missing component of U.S. strategic communications. Joint Force Quarterly, 47, 109113.
  • de Czege, H. (2008). Rethinking IO: Complex operations in the information age. Military Review, 88(6), 1426.
  • Defense Science Board (DSB) (2000, May). Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on the creation and dissemination of all forms of information in support of Psychological Operations (PSYOP) in time of military conflict [Electronic version]. Washington , DC : Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics. Retrieved November 1, 2006, from http://www.acq.osd.mil/dsb/reports/psyop.pdf.
  • Defense Science Board (DSB) (2008, January). Report of the Defense Science Board on Strategic Communication [Electronic version]. Washington , DC : Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics. Retrieved June 14, 2008, from http://www.acq.osd.mil/dsb/reports/2008-01-Strategic_Communication.pdf.
  • Department of Defense (2000, June). Joint vision 2020 [Electronic version]. Washington , DC : U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved October 14, 2006, from http://www.dtic.mil/jointvision/jvpub2.htm.
  • Department of Defense (2003, October 30). Information operations roadmap. [Electronic version]. Washington , DC : U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved August 26, 2006, from http://www.information-retrieval.info/docs/info_ops_roadmap.pdf.
  • Department of Defense (2006, February 13). Joint Publication 3–13: Information operations [Electronic version]. Washington , DC : Joint Staff. Retrieved June 6, 2006, from http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/new_pubs/jp3_13.pdf.
  • Department of Defense (2006, September). Quadrennial defense review strategic communication execution roadmap [Electronic version]. Washington , DC : U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved June 17, 2007, from https://akss.dau.mil/Documents/Policy/OSD-2013697-06.pdf.
  • Department of Defense (2009, October 5). Joint Publication 3–24: Counterinsurgency operations. [Electronic Version]. Washington , DC : Joint Staff . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/doctrine/doctrine.htm.
  • Department of Defense (2010, January 7). Joint Publication 3–13.2. Doctrine for joint psychological operations. [Electronic version]. Washington , DC : Joint Staff. Retrieved March 6, 2010, from http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jp3_13_2.pdf.
  • Dotinga, R. (2005, April 25). Military channel reports for duty. The Christian Science Monitor, 97 (105), p. 11. Retrieved December 15, 2006, from http://www.csmonitor.com/2005/0425/p11s01-usmi.html.
  • Dunbar, R. (2009, Winter). Achieving irreversible momentum. IOSPHERE , Journal of the Joint Information Operations Center, 813.
  • DVIDS: Digital Video & Imagery Distribution System [Website]: http://www.dvidshub.net/index.php.
  • Eder, M. K. (2007, July-August). Toward strategic communication. Military Review, 87(4), 6170.
  • Ellul, J. (1973). Propaganda: The formation of men's attitudes. New York : Vintage Books.
  • Emery, N., Werchan, J., & Mowles, D. (2005, January-February). Fighting terrorism and insurgency: Shaping the information environment. Military Review, 85(1), 3238.
  • Freeburg, J., & Todd, J. (2004 November-December). The 101st Airborne Division in Iraq: Televising freedom. Military Review, 84(6), 3941.
  • Gates, R. (2008, January-February). Beyond guns and steel: Reviving the nonmilitary instruments of American power. Military Review, 88(1), 29.
  • Goldstein, C. (2008). A strategic failure: American information control policy in occupied Iraq. Military Review, 88(2), 5865.
  • Gray, C. (2005, Spring). How has war changed since the end of the Cold War? Parameters, 35(1), 1426.
  • Halloran, R. (2007, Fall). Strategic communication. Parameters, 37(3), 414.
  • Hames, J. (2009) The “reel Army.” WWW.ARMY.MIL: The Official Homepage of the United States Army. Retrieved January 2, 2009, from http://www.army.mil/news/2009/11/24/30905-the-reel-army/.
  • Hammes, T. (2007, May-June). Fourth generation warfare evolves, fifth emerges. Military Review, 87(3), 1423.
  • Harris, S. (2004, April 7). Voices of America: Two U.S. government-run TV networks are fighting to win over Iraqi viewers. Retrieved December 24, 2006, from http://www.govexec.com/features/0404-1/0404-1newsanalysis5.htm.
  • Hemming, J. (2008, November 29). Press and Psy-Ops to merge at NATO Afghan HQ [Electronic version]. Reuters, Retrieved January 3, 2009 from http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE4AS0ZV20081129.
  • Hendricks, B. Wenner, & Weaver, W. (2010, May). DIME is for integration: Strategic communications as an integrator of national power. IO Journal, 2(2), 3639.
  • Henry, R., & Peartree, C. (1998, Autumn). Military theory and information warfare. Parameters, 28(3), 121135.
  • Hoffman, L. (1992). American psychologists and wartime research on Germany. American Psychologist, 47(2), 263273.
  • Hubbard, Z. (2007). Information Operations in the global war on terror: Lessons learned from operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. In E.L. Armistead (Ed.), Information warfare: Separating hype from reality (pp. 4572). Washington , DC : Potomac Books.
  • Jones, J. (2005). Strategic communication: A mandate for the United States. Joint Force Quarterly, 39(4), 108114.
  • Jones, J., Kuehl, D., Burgess, D., & Rochte, R. (2009). Strategic communication and the combatant commander. Joint Force Quarterly, 55(4), 104108.
  • Jowett, G., & O’Donnell, V. (2006). Propaganda and persuasion (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks , CA : Sage Publications.
  • Julian, G. (2007). Transforming the Department of Defense strategic communication. In D. Murphy, J. Groh, D. Smith, & C. Ayers (Eds.), Information as power: An anthology of U.S. Army War College student papers (pp. 5358). Vol. 1. Carlisle , PA : U.S. Army War College. Retrieved June 14, 2008, from http://www.carlisle.army.mil/usacsl/publications/InfoAsPowerTOC.pdf.
  • Keeton, P., & McCann, M. (2005, November-December). Information Operations, STRATCOM, and Public Affairs. Military Review, 85(6), 8386.
  • Kennedy, C., & Zillmer, E. (2006). Military psychology: Clinical and operational applications. New York : Guilford Press.
  • Kilcullen, D. (2007). New paradigms for the 21st century. eJournal USA, 12(5), 3945. Retrieved January 15, 2008, from http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itps/0507/ijpe/kilcullen.htm.
  • Kipnis, D. (1994). Accounting for the use of behavior technologies in social psychology. American Psychologist, 49(3), 165172.
  • Kuehl, D. (2004). Forward. In E. L. Armistead (Ed.), Information operations: Warfare and the hard reality of soft power (pp. xviixviii). Washington , DC : Brassey's, Inc.
  • Kuehl, D., & Armistead, L. (2007). Information operations: The policy and organizational evaluation. In E. L. Armistead (Ed.), Information warfare: Separating hype from reality (pp. 525). Washington , DC : Potomac Books.
  • Lamb, C. (2005a). Review of psychological lessons learned from recent experience. Washington , DC : National Defense University Press. Retrieved October 25, 2006, from http://www.fas.org/irp/eprint/lamb.pdf.
  • Lamb, C. (2005b). Information operations as a core competency. Joint Force Quarterly, 36, 8896.
  • Lanning. (2008). Democracy, voting, and disenfranchisement in the United States: A social psychological perspective. Journal of Social Issues, 64(3), 431446.
  • Lasswell, H. (1970, Feb). Must science serve political power? American Psychologist, 25(2), 117123.
  • Lee, A. (1950). Can the individual protect himself against propaganda not in his interest? Social Forces, 29, 5661.
  • Lee, A. (1986). Depression, war, SPSSI, and SSSP. Journal of Social Issues. 42(4), 6169.
  • Lewin, M. (1992). The impact of Kurt Lewin's life on the place of social issues in his work. Journal of Social Issues, 48(2), 1529.
  • Ludowese, J. (2006, March).Strategic communication: Who should lead the long war of ideas? Carlisle , PA : United States Army War College Research Project. Retrieved June 30, 2007, from http://www.carlisle.army.mil/DIME/documents/ksil408.pdf.
  • Malone, J., & Armistead, L. (2007). Speaking out of both sides of your mouth: Approaches to perception management in Washington, D.C. and Canberra. In E. L. Armistead (Ed.), Information warfare: Separating hype from reality (pp. 139151). Washington , DC : Potomac Books.
  • Mangelsdorff, D. (2006). Psychology in the service of national security (1st ed.). Washington , DC : American Psychological Association.
  • Marx, W. (2006). Misinformation intern: My summer as a military propagandist in Iraq. Harper's Magazine, 313, 5159.
  • Mazzetti, M. (2004, December 1). PR meets Psy-Ops in war on terror. Los Angeles Times, Los Angeles , CA , p. A-1. Retrieved January 3, 2009, from Proquest database.
  • Media Matters for America (2008, May 13). Military analysts named in Times exposé appeared or were quoted more than 4,500 times on broadcast nets, cables, NPR [Electronic version ]. Retrieved December 27, 2009, from http://mediamatters.org/research/200805130001.
  • Metz, S., & Kievit, J. (1995). Strategy and the revolution in military affairs: From theory to policy. Report from the Strategic Studies Institute. Retrieved August 25, 2007, from http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pubs/display.cfm?pubID=236.
  • Metz, T., Garrett, M., Hutton, J., & Bush, T. (2006, May-June). Massing effects in the information domain: A case study in aggressive Information Operations. Military Review, 86(3), 212.
  • Miller, C. (19371938). Preface. In Propaganda analysis: Volume 1 of Publications of the Institute for Propaganda Analysis (pp. iii–v). New York : Gordon Press.
  • Miller, D. (2004). Information dominance: The philosophy of total propaganda control? In Y. Kamalipour & N. Snow (Eds.) War, media, and propaganda (pp. 716). New York : Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
  • Mullen, M. (2009). Strategic communication: Getting back to basics. Joint Force Quarterly, 55, 24.
  • Murphy, D. (2007, December). Strategic communication. In U.S. Army War College, Information Operations Primer—AY 08 Edition (pp. 913). Carlisle , PA : Department of Strategy, Planning, & Military Leadership.
  • Murphy, D. (2010, May-June). Attack or defend? Levering information and balancing risk in cyberspace. Military Review, 8896.
  • Murphy, D., & White, J. (2007, Autumn). Propaganda: Can a word decide a war? Parameters, 37(3), 1527.
  • Nagl, J., & Yingling, P. (2006, October). New rules for enemies. [Electronic version]. Armed Forces Journal. Retrieved February 26, 2008, from http://www.armedforcesjournal.com/2006/10/2088425.
  • Office of the Secretary of Defense (2007). Fiscal year (FY) 2008/FY 2009 budget estimates (pp. 657;659) [Electronic version.]. Washington , DC : Department of Defense. Retrieved June 22, 2007, from http://www.defenselink.mil/comptroller/defbudget/fy2008/budget_justification/pdfs/01_Operation_and_Maintenance/O_M_VOL_1_PARTS/23_OSD.pdf.
  • Oppenheimer, R. (1956). Analogy in science. American Psychologist, 11(3), 127135.
  • Paschall, J. (2005, July-August). IO for Joe: Applying strategic IO at the tactical level. [Electronic version]. Field Artillery. Retrieved March 4, 2007, from http://sill-www.army.mil/FAMAG/2005/JUL_AUG_2005/PAGES25_29.pdf.
  • Packer, G. (2006, December 18). Knowing the enemy: A reporter at large [Electronic version]. The New Yorker, December 18. Retrieved December 26, 2006, from http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2006/12/18/061218fa_fact2.
  • Payne, K. (2005, Spring). The media as an instrument of war. Parameters, 35(1), 8193.
  • Petty, R., & Cacioppo, J. (1986). Communication and persuasion: Central and peripheral routes to attitude change. New York : Springer-Verlag.
  • Post, J. (2005). Psychological Operations and counter-terrorism. Joint Force Quarterly, 37, 105110.
  • Pratkanis, A. (2001). Propaganda and deliberative persuasion: The implications of Americanized mass media for established and emerging democracies. In W. Wosinska, R. Cialdini, D. Barrett, & J. Reykowski (Eds.), The practice of social influence in multiple cultures (pp. 259284). Mahwah, New Jersey : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
  • Pratkanis, A., & Aronson, E. (2001). Age of propaganda: Everyday use and abuse of persuasion (Rev. Ed.). New York : W. H. Freeman and Company.
  • Pratkanis, A., & Turner, M. (1996). Persuasion and democracy: Strategies for increasing deliberative participation and enacting social change. Journal of Social Issues, 52(1), 187205.
  • Pryor, M. (2005, September 21). U.S. troops help launch Afghan radio station. Defend America: U.S. Department of Defense news about the war on terrorism. Retrieved December 27, 2006, from http://www.defendamerica.mil/articles/sep2005/a092105tj2.html.
  • Psywarrior [Website]. Operation Enduring Freedom: Leaflets dropped over Afghanistan. Documents AFDDG1; AFDDG2. Retrieved February 3, 2008, from psywarrior.com: http://psywarrior.com/Afghanleaflinks.html.
  • Psywarrior [Website]: Operation Iraqi Freedom: Leaflets dropped over Iraq, 20022003. Document IZD-050; IAD-057; IZD 0330. Retrieved February 3, 2008, from psywarrior.com http://psywarrior.com/Iraqleaflinks.html.
  • Reed, C. (2009, August 24). Journalists’ recent work examined before embeds [Electronic version]. Stars and stripes, Retrieved December 30, 2009, from=104&article=64348.
  • Reed, C., Baron, K., & Shane, L. (2009, August 29). Files prove Pentagon is profiling reporters [Electronic version]. Stars and Stripes, Retrieved December 30, 2009, from http://www.stripes.com/article.asp?section=104&article=64401.
  • Richter, W. (2009, January-February). The future of information operations. Military Review, 89(1), 103113.
  • Ricks, T. (2006). U.S. military plays up role of Zarqawi: Jordanian painted as foreign threat to Iraq's stability. The Washington Post. (Final ed.) Washington , DC : April 10, p. A01. Retrieved from Proquest database.
  • Roberts, M. E. (2005). Villages of the moon: Psychological operations in southern Afghanistan. Baltimore, MD : PublishAmerica.
  • Rohm, F. (2008, January-February). Information operations and psychological operations, Military Review, 88(1), 108111.
  • Scales, R. (2006, July). Clausewitz and World War IV. Armed Forces Journal, 16–24, 48.
  • Scanlon, J. (2007, May-June). Truth in defense of public affairs doctrine. Military Review, 87(3), 9296.
  • Schulman, D. (2006, May-June). Mind games. Columbia Journalism Review. Retrieved August 2, 2006, from CJR archive http://cjrarchives.org/issues/2006/3/schulman.asp.
  • Seese, G., & Smith, P. (2008, November-December). Measuring PSYOP effectiveness. Special Warfare, 21(6), 3134.
  • Seib, P. (2008, May-June). The Al-Qaeda media machine. Military Review, 88(3), 7480.
  • Shanker, T., & Hertling, M. (2009, September-October). The military-media relationship: A dysfunctional marriage? Military Review, 89(5), 29.
  • Shou, C., Kuehl, D., & Armistead, L. (2007). Information Operations education: Lessons learned from information assurance. In E. L. Armistead (Ed.), Information warfare: Separating hype from reality (pp. 95108). Washington , DC : Potomac Books.
  • Sieminski, G. (1995, Fall). The art of naming operations [Electronic version]. Parameters. Retrieved October 25, 2006 from http://www.carlisle.army.mil.
  • Silverberg, D., & Heimann, J. (2009, Summer). An ever-expanding war: Legal aspects of online strategic communication. Parameters, 39(20), 7793.
  • Silverstein, K. (2007, July 16). Meet the Pentagon's new spin unit: Bush administration hacks court bloggers, talk radio [Electronic version]. Harper's Magazine. Retrieved July 20, 2007, from http://www.harpers.org/archive/2007/07/hbc-90000539.
  • Simpson, C. (1994). The science of coercion: Communication research and psychological warfare 1945–1960. New York : Oxford University Press.
  • Sproule, J. M. (1997). Propaganda and democracy: The American experience of media and mass persuasion. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
  • Steele, R. (2006, February). Information operations: Putting the “I” back into DIME. Carlisle , PA : U.S. Army War College Strategic Studies Institute . Retrieved August 20, 2007, from http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/Pubs/display.cfm?PubID=642.
  • Stevenson, R., & Elder, J. (2004, April 29). Support for war is down sharply, poll concludes [Electronic version]. New York Times. Retrieved July 25, 2008, from http://www.nytimes.com/2004/04/29/politics/29POLL.html?pagewanted=print.
  • Suedfel, P. (2007). Torture, interrogation, security, and psychology: Absolutistic versus complex thinking. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 7(1), 5563.
  • Taylor, P. (2002). Strategic communications or democratic propaganda? Journalism Studies, 3(3), 437452.
  • Taylor, P. M. (2003). Munitions of the mind. Manchester, NH : Manchester University Press.
  • United States Army (1994, May 5). Field manual 33-1-1. Psychological operations techniques and procedures [Electronic version]. Department of the Army . Briefly available on the Web, July, 2007.
  • United States Army (2005, April). Field Manual 3-05.30 (FM 3-.05.30). Psychological Operations [Electronic version]. Department of the Army . Retrieved August 16, 2008, from http://www.fas.org/irp/doddir/army/fm3-05-30.pdf.
  • United States Army. (2007, January 12). General Orders Number 30: Establishment of the United States Army Psychological Operations Branch [Electronic version ]. Retrieved April 18, 2007, from http://www.army.mil/usapa/epubs/pdf/go0630.pdf.
  • United States Army (2008, February). Field manual 3–0 (FM 3–0). Operations [Electronic Version ]. Retrieved July 28, 2008, from http://usacac.army.mil/cac2/Repository/Materials/FM3-0(FEB%202008).pdf.
  • U.S. Army to produce Mid-East comic: The U.S. military is planning to win the hearts of young people in the Middle East by publishing a new comic (2005, March 31). BBC News. Retrieved December 15, 2006, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4396351.stm
  • Vallance, T. (1972). Social science and social policy: Amoral methodology in a matrix of values. American Psychologist, 27(2), 107113.
  • Wells, L. (2007, July 11). Statement before the House Armed Services Committee Sub-Committee on Terrorism and Unconventional Threats and Capabilities, p. 4, note 6. Retrieved August 15, 2007, from http://armedservices.house.gov/pdfs/TUTC071107/WellsTestimony071107.pdf.
  • Zewe, C. (2004, Fall). ‘Infoganda’ in Uniform: The Bush Administration creates media outlets to tell its story. Nieman Reports, 7980.
  • Zimbardo, P. (2007). Thoughts on psychologists, ethics, and the use of torture in interrogations: Don't ignore varying roles and complexities. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 7(1), 6573.
  • Zucchino, D. (2004, July 3). Army stage-managed fall of Hussein statue. Retrieved December 26, 2006, from http://www.commondreams.org website.