Hope for the Future in Mitigating Climate Change? On Statistically Modeling Self-Sacrifice in the Face of Global Warming


Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to James H. Liu, Centre for Applied Cross Cultural Research, School of Psychology, PO Box 600, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand [e-mail: James.Liu@vuw.ac.nz].


Two sets of concerns were expressed in commentary about Liu & Sibley's (2012) article on self-sacrifice in the face of global warming. Statistical issues can be addressed with a better understanding of Multilevel Random Coefficient Models. We hold that in accord with the theory of planned behavior, it is more likely that beliefs about the importance of global warming predict intentions for willingness to make sacrifices rather than the reverse, and that given this presumed causal direction, the strength of this effect is moderated by cross-national differences on the human development index. Conceptually, we agree that measuring pro-environmental action in accord with self-interest and/or requiring greater effort but not self-sacrifice would provide a more complete picture.