SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • ACS (American Chemical Society). 1996. Technology vision 2020: The U.S. chemical industry. http://www.chemicalvision2020.org/pdfs/chem_vision.pdf. Accessed 4 April 2008.
  • Akiyama, M., T. Takeharu, and D. Yoshiharu. 2003. Environmental lifecycle comparison of polyhydroxyalkonates produced from renewable carbon sources by bacterial fermentation. Polymer Degradation and Stability 80: 183194.
  • Boustead, I. 1999. Ecoprofiles of plastics and related intermediates. Brussels, Belgium : Association of Plastic Manufacturers of Europe (APME). http://www.apme.org.
  • Chang, J., Y. Uk-An, and G. Sur. 2003. Poly(lactic acid) nanocomposites with various organoclays: I. Thermo-mechanical properties, morphology and gas permeability. Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics 41: 94103.
  • Choi, W., T. Kim, O. Park, Y. Chang, and J. Lee. 2003. Preparation and characterization of poly(hydroxylbutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate)-organocaly nanocomposites. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 90: 525529.
  • Corbiere-Nicollier, T., B. Laban, L. Lundquist, Y. Leterrier, J. Manson, and O. Jolliet. 2001. Lifecycle assessment of biofibers replacing glass fibers as reinforcement in plastics. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 33: 267287.
  • Dinkel, F., C. Pohl, M. Ros, and B. Waldeck. 1996. Ökobilanz stärkehaltiger Kunststoffe[Life-cycle assessment of starch-containing polymers]. Schriftenreihe Umwelt Nr. 271. Bern, Switzerland : BUWAL (Bundesamt für Umwelt, Wald und Landschaft [SwissAgency for the Environment, Forests, and Landscape]).
  • Dornburg V., I. Lewandowski, and M. Patel. 2004. Comparing the land requirements, energy savings, and greenhouse gas emissions reduction of biobased polymers and bioenergy. Journal of Industrial Ecology 7(3–4): 93116.
  • Ecobilan. 2006. DEAM™ LCA database. Paris : Ecobilan.
  • Estermann, R., B. Schwarzwälder, and B. Gysin. 2000. Life cycle assessment of Mater-Bi and EPS loose fills. Olten , Switzerland : Composto.
  • Federal Register. 1999. President's Executive order 13134, Developing and promoting biobased products and bioenergy. 64(157): 4463944642.
  • Franklin Associates. 2006. Estimates from various internal/industry sources obtained through personal communications with James Littlefield, Chemical Engineers, 3/15/2006.
  • Gerngross, T. 1999. Can biotechnology move us towards sustainability? Nature Biotechnology 17: 541544.
  • Gerngross, T. and S. Slater. 2000. How green are green polymers? Scientific American 282(8): 3741.
  • Gusev, A. and H. Lusti. 2001. Rational design of nanocomposites for barrier applications. Advanced Materials 13: 16411643.
  • Heyde, M. 1998. Ecological considerations on the use and production of biosynthetic and synthetic biodegradable polymers. Polymer Degradation and Stability 59: 36.
  • Joshi, S., L. Drzal, A. Mohanty, and S. Arora. 2004. Are natural fiber composites environmentally superior to glass fiber composites? Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 35: 371376.
  • Lloyd, S. and L. Lave. 2003 Life cycle economic and environmental implications of using nanocomposites in automobiles. Environmental Science and Technology 37: 34583466.
  • Maiti, P., C. Batt, and E. Gianellis. 2003. Renewable plastics: Synthesis and properties of PHB nanocomposites. Polymer Material Science and Engineering 88: 5859.
  • McWilliams, A. 2006. Nanocomposites, nanoparticles, nanoclays, and nanotubes. Report Nano 21C. Wellesley, MA: BCC Research. http://www.bccresearch.com/RepTemplate.cfm?ReportID=403&cat=nan&RepDet=HLT&target=repdetail.cfm. Accessed 10 October 2007.
  • Messersmith, P. and E. Giannelis. 1995. Synthesis and barrier properties of poly(e-caprolactone)-layered silicate nanocomposites. Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry 33: 10471057.
  • Mohanty, A., M. Misra, L. Drzal, S. Selke, B. Harte, and G. Hinrichsen. 2005. Natural fibers, biopolymers and biocomposites: An introduction. In Natural fibers, biopolymers and biocomposites, edited by  A.Mohanty, M.Misra, and L.Drzal. Boca Raton , FL : Taylor and Francis.
  • Murphy, J. 2001. Additives for plastics handbook. New York : Elsevier Science.
  • Okamoto, M. 2005. Biodegradable polymer/layered silicate nanocomposites: A review. In Handbook of biodegradable polymeric materials and their applications, Vol. 1, edited by  S.Mallaprgada and B.Narasimhan. Valencia , CA : American Scientific Publishers.
  • Orica Limited. 2007. Chemical fact sheet: Cationic sulfactants. http://www.pacia.org.au/_uploaditems/docs/3.cationic_surfactants.pdf. Accessed April 2007.
  • Pandey, J., A. Kumar, M. Misra, A. Mohanty, L. Drzal, and R. Singh. 2005. Recent advances in biodegradable nanocomposites. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 5(4): 497525.
  • Park, H., W. Lee, C. Park, W. Cho, and C. Ha. 2002. Preparation and properties of biodegradable thermoplastic starch/clay hybrids. Macromolecular Materials and Engineering 287(8): 553558.
  • Patel, M. and R. Narayan. 2005. How sustainable are biopolymers and biobased products? In Natural fibers, biopolymers and biocomposites, edited by  A.Mohanty, M.Misra, and L.Drzal., Boca Raton , FL : Taylor and Francis.
  • Patel, M., C. Bastioli, L. Marini, and E. Würdinger. 2003. Environmental assessment of biobased polymers and natural fibres. In General aspects and special applications: Biopolymers, Vol. 10, edited by  A.Steinbüchel. Weinheim , Germany : Wiley.
  • Sinha Ray, S. and M. Bousmina. 2005. Biodegradable polymers and their layered silicate nanocomposites: In greening the 21st century materials world. Progress in Materials Science 50: 9621079.
  • Sinha Ray, S. and M. Okamoto. 2003. Biodegradable polylactide/layered silicate nanocomposites: Open a new dimension for plastics and composites. Macromolecules Rapid Communication 24: 815840.
  • Sinha Ray, S., K. Yamada, M. Okamoto, Y. Fujimoto, A. Ogami, and K. Ueda. 2003. New polylactide/layered silicate nanocomposites 5: Designing materials with desired properties. Polymer 44: 66336646.
  • Sinha Ray, S., K. Yamada, M. Okamoto, A. Ogami, and K. Ueda. 2003. New polylactide/layered silicate nanocomposites 3: High performance biodegradable materials. Chemical Materials 15: 14561465.
  • Southern Clay. 2007. http://www.nanoclay.com/ Accessed October 2007.
  • U.S. Department Of Energy (USDOE), U.S. Department Of Agriculture (USDA). 2000. Report to the President of the United States in response to Executive Order 13134: Developing and promoting biobased products and bioenergy, February 14. http://www.brdisolutions.com/Site%20Docs/presidentsreport.pdf. Accessed 10 October 2007.
  • Vink, E., K. Rábago, D. Glassner, and P. Gruber. 2003. Applications of life cycle assessment to NatureWorks (TM) polylactide (PLA) production. Polymer Degradation and Stability 80(3): 403419.
  • Wolf, O., M. Crank, F. Marscheider-Weidemann, J. Schleich, B. Hüsing, and G. Angerer. 2005. Techno-economic feasibility of largescale production of biobased polymers in Europe. Technical report: EUR 22103 EN. Brussels, Belgium: European Commission, Joint Research Center.
  • Würdinger, E., U. Roth, A. Wegener, R. Peche, J. Borken, A. Detzel, H. Fehrenbach, et al. 2002. Kunststoffe aus nachwachsenden Rohstoffen: Vergleichende Ö kobilanz für Loose-fill-Packmittel aus Stiärke bzw. aus Polystyrol [Biobased polymers: Comparative lifecycle assessment of loose-fill-packaging from starch and poly(styrene)]. Endbericht (DBU-Az.04763). Augsburg, Germany: Bayrisches Institut für angewandte Umweltforschung und-technik [Bavarian Institute of Applied Environmental Research and Technology].
  • Xanthos, M. 2005. Functional fillers for plastics. Weinhiem , Germany : Wiley-VCH.