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Keywords:

  • education and training;
  • environmental education;
  • graduate student teaching;
  • secondary education;
  • industrial ecology;
  • life cycle thinking

Summary

  1. Top of page
  2. Summary
  3. Introduction
  4. Overview of the Green Design Apprenticeship Program
  5. Green Design Apprenticeship Content
  6. Benefits to Research and Researchers
  7. Conclusions
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. References
  10. About the Authors
  11. Supporting Information

In order to convey the results of our industrial ecology research to broader audiences, the Green Design Institute research group at Carnegie Mellon University offers the Green Design Apprenticeship for local high school students. The Green Design Apprenticeship introduces participants to industrial ecology concepts and how they intersect with engineering. The content of the program has evolved to include the topics of life cycle assessment, energy and water resources, transportation, and the built environment. The program has resulted in exposing a new generation of scholars to industrial ecology and has also benefited the research of graduate students involved with the program. The process of developing the instructional materials for younger, novice students based on complex industrial ecology research was a challenging task requiring thoughtful and iterative planning. Through the development and delivery of the program, we have experienced awareness of where our own research fits into the larger industrial ecology scope, have improved our communication of complex industrial ecology concepts into simple terms, and have gained valuable insight for engaging students in our teaching.


Introduction

  1. Top of page
  2. Summary
  3. Introduction
  4. Overview of the Green Design Apprenticeship Program
  5. Green Design Apprenticeship Content
  6. Benefits to Research and Researchers
  7. Conclusions
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. References
  10. About the Authors
  11. Supporting Information

Industrial ecology research involves multidisciplinary investigation and evaluation of the complex systems linking society's grand objectives to the science of the environment (Graedel and Allenby 2003). Although such research is usually undertaken by research institutes and business professionals, the results of industrial ecology research have direct implications for people's everyday activities (Eshel and Martin 2006; Kim et al. 2006; Lipman 2006; Sivaraman et al. 2007). One responsibility academic researchers have is to pass their knowledge on to those who can benefit from it. Indeed, funding agencies require proposals to include the broader impacts of research, plans for disseminating research results, and outreach activities (NSF 2008). For industrial ecology researchers, this means educating the public about life cycle assessment (LCA) and material flow analysis as well as about how their everyday choices can—and do—have an impact on the state of the world.

One way Carnegie Mellon University's (CMU's) Green Design Institute (GDI) has chosen to disseminate its research and the related larger implications is through a series of community outreach activities. In one particular case, GDI researchers established a Green Design Apprenticeship program in conjunction with local school districts in the area around Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. The Green Design Apprenticeship program introduces high school students with engineering interests to industrial ecology concepts. The hope is that students will consider these concepts as they continue learning and enter their chosen professions, in addition to incorporating the concepts into their everyday activities. In the process of developing activities to educate high school students and the public about GDI research, we learned a great deal about how to best translate multifaceted research concepts into common language, which, in turn, improved our own understanding of how the public perceives academic research. This article provides an overview of the Green Design Apprenticeship program, highlights the industrial ecology topics presented to the students and how they are received, and summarizes how we have benefited in our own research from designing and participating in the program.

Overview of the Green Design Apprenticeship Program

  1. Top of page
  2. Summary
  3. Introduction
  4. Overview of the Green Design Apprenticeship Program
  5. Green Design Apprenticeship Content
  6. Benefits to Research and Researchers
  7. Conclusions
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. References
  10. About the Authors
  11. Supporting Information

The Green Design Apprenticeship is one of several options within a broader Apprenticeship Program that provides opportunities for high school students to interact with and learn from a variety of local professionals. The overall Apprenticeship Program is organized and administered by the Allegheny Intermediate Unit (AIU), a regional educational service agency that serves as a liaison between the state-level Pennsylvania Department of Education and individual school districts at the local level. The AIU operates a variety of programs that serve all local schools and local educational programs, such as curriculum development, teacher training, speech and hearing services, support for gifted and special needs students, adult literacy education, and early childhood education. The AIU Apprenticeship Program is offered through the Gifted and Talented Education Program and uses day-long learning experiences during the school year to link secondary students to professionals in a wide variety of specialties (AIU 2008).

The intent of the AIU Apprenticeship Program is to help guide students in their educational and career choices by exposing them to people and organizations related to careers that interest them. For example, students can apply to apprenticeships in broadcast journalism, musical conducting, nursing, and zoology, to name a few. Each spring, students in 9th through 11th grades can apply to participate in one of 30 to 35 apprenticeships that will be held during the following school year. Applications include grade summaries, teacher recommendations, and an essay. The AIU processes applications and matches students with a single apprenticeship on the basis of merit and interest. Only students who demonstrate the ability to learn independently are selected, as they are excused from school for the days required to participate in their apprenticeship. Approximately 900 students participate in the AIU Apprenticeship Program each academic year. Since 2004, the Green Design Apprenticeship has been an option in the AIU Apprenticeship Program. Fifteen to 20 students have participated in the Green Design Apprenticeship each year, filling our program to capacity. Students who select the Green Design Apprenticeship typically excel at science and math. These students have a strong desire to learn more about engineering, as they otherwise have little exposure to the field, its academic requirements, and potential career paths. Most students also have a strong interest in environmental issues, but some have interest in more traditional civil engineering areas, such as structural design or transportation. The partnership with the established AIU Apprenticeship Program reduces significantly the administrative burden associated with the program, as interested students are effectively delivered straight to the Green Design Apprenticeship.

Program Funding and Staffing

The Green Design Apprenticeship is funded from GDI project grants, as the program helps fulfill part of the education, outreach, and broader impact dissemination expected with such awards. Other funding for the Green Design Apprenticeship program has been provided by internal university support focused on environmental education initiatives, and external funding has been sought from foundations. Costs for the Green Design Apprenticeship total approximately $1,500 a year for supplies and lunch on program days, plus the labor costs associated with preparing and presenting the program. Initially, a core group of graduate research assistants collaborated to design and deliver the program. Now, a Green Design Apprenticeship coordinator position has been established to ensure that the program continues to evolve across the generations of graduate students who help plan and produce the program. The Green Design Apprenticeship coordinator is a GDI research faculty member who performs administrative duties for the program, helps refine and develop program content, and is an instructor for the program.

Graduate students continue to have an integral part in the program. Graduate research assistants supported by the GDI contribute to the development and delivery of content related to their ongoing research. Participation is viewed as conducive to the overall research and teaching experience of graduate student researchers, even though it may divert students temporarily from their research duties. Other graduate students and advanced undergraduate students affiliated with the GDI volunteer their time both to develop content and to support instructors as small-group facilitators. Regardless of background, all contributors participate because they have a personal desire to convey the importance of green design and industrial ecology concepts, and of engineering more generally, to the students. About 10 to 12 graduate students help develop and refine content and assist during program days during the academic year. Although no formal training is provided to the graduate students in teaching, the coordinator, a seasoned educator, assists in the content development to address learning strategies.

Each program day (as described below) involves an initial meeting of the coordinator and graduate students participating in that day to generate objectives, concepts, and activities and to draft an agenda for the program day. Then the coordinator and graduate students work individually or in small groups to outline each day's sections and develop or refine content. A second meeting of the full group allows time to debrief others on their roles and responsibilities (e.g., as small-group leaders), to practice any new activities, and to confirm any final preparations. Overall, each day requires about 10 to 25 labor-hours of preparation time, depending on the development of new content (divided among the coordinator and two to three senior graduate students). This work culminates in the 6 hours of classroom time with the participating high school students. From five to eight graduate students assist on any one program day, as their class and research schedules allow.

Green Design Apprenticeship Content

  1. Top of page
  2. Summary
  3. Introduction
  4. Overview of the Green Design Apprenticeship Program
  5. Green Design Apprenticeship Content
  6. Benefits to Research and Researchers
  7. Conclusions
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. References
  10. About the Authors
  11. Supporting Information

Program Goals and Learning Objectives

The fundamental aim of the Green Design Apprenticeship is to expose participants to industrial ecology concepts and tools as well as to introduce students to the connections between engineering and environmental issues. The underlying goal has always been to provide a positive and engaging experience for participating students. We want students to enjoy learning and investigating these new concepts, as a means of encouraging long-term “systems thinking” for their academic and professional careers and for everyday decisions. Regardless of any changes in specific content, as described in the next section, we have the following learning objectives for students leaving the program:

  • • 
    Students can explain engineering, what engineers do, and identify various fields of engineering and their related activities.
  • • 
    Students can illustrate how environmental and social issues intersect with engineering design and decision making.
  • • 
    Students can describe the life cycle of a product, process, or service and can identify various material and energy inputs and environmental emissions for each life cycle stage.
  • • 
    Students can appraise the complicated trade-offs among engineering designs, economic performance, environmental emissions, and social implications.
  • • 
    Students can explain the importance of and connections among the materials, water, and energy resources in commercial, industrial, and consumer activities and infrastructure, demonstrating systems thinking.

Regardless of what type of career students may eventually pursue, the goal of the Green Design Apprenticeship program is to introduce students to a scope of consideration broader than the one they began with—one that incorporates life cycle thinking; trade-offs among economic, environmental, and societal impacts; and sustainability.

Program Organization and Evolution

The Green Design Apprenticeship meets once a month during the school year in a series of day-long sessions; each day has a different industrial ecology-related theme. Because the high school students sometimes cannot attend every Green Design Apprenticeship session, each day centers on a unique topic that ties back to the overarching theme of life cycle thinking. As a result, students who must miss a session can be engaged in later sessions without difficulty. Table 1 provides a list of topics covered over the first 5 years of the Green Design Apprenticeship. The program centers on product life cycles, measurement of life cycle impacts, energy generation and consumption, and the resource demands of built infrastructure. Specific examples and case studies have varied over the years, depending on participating graduate students' interests and expertise. At the highest level, content changes have included replacement of the 1st year's brownfields material with full days on topics such as water resources and built infrastructure. Additionally, in the 3rd year, complete segments were created for climate change, sustainable community development, and transportation issues, which included examining alternative fuels and vehicle types, especially the complex issues surrounding hydrogen and ethanol. Since the program's 4th year, the program has been expanded to include a 6th day, which allowed us to reintegrate the water resources content into the topic rotation without replacing other Year 3 content.

Table 1.  Green Design Apprenticeship content development since its inception
DayYear 1 2004–2005Year 2 2005–2006Year 3 2006–2007Year 4 and 52007–2008, 2008–2009
1Life cycle thinking and material resourcesLife cycle thinking and material resourcesLife cycle thinking and material resourcesLife cycle thinking and material resources
2Energy and electricityLife cycle assessment toolsLife cycle assessment toolsLife cycle assessment tools
3Transportation, alternative fuels, built infrastructure, sustainability indicators, and life cycle decision makingEnergy, electricity, and transportationClimate change basics, energy consumption, and electricityClimate change basics, energy consumption, and electricity alternatives
4BrownfieldsWater resourcesBuilt infrastructure and sustainable community developmentEnergy consumption and transportation alternatives
5N/ABuilt infrastructure and life cycle decision makingTransportation alternatives and life cycle decision makingWater resources
6N/AN/AN/ABuilt infrastructure and sustainable community development

Content Development

While developing content for the Green Design Apprenticeship, we pedagogically faced (and continue to face) several challenges. First, one of the main ambitions of the Green Design Apprenticeship is to truly engage the students in learning about engineering and industrial ecology concepts; thus, in the spirit of an apprenticeship, the standard academic lecture format does not seem appropriate. Second, we aim to present industrial ecology-related issues in a way that is pertinent to the students and to the region. As issues move in and out of prominence, the program's material must be continually updated to remain current. Likewise, the Green Design Apprenticeship strives to present concepts that reflect contributors' strengths; however, graduate students regularly rotate through the university system, and research paths are continually being revised. This, too, results in adaptation of content to maintain relevance. These challenges are no different than those faced by university instructors of engineering or industrial ecology topics; thus, our instructional strategies include those identified to enhance learning (NRC 2000; Schroeder et al 2007), such as using student-centered, collaborative, and meaningful content. A final challenge is that the program's students generally come from a discipline-based educational system, which means that basic science topics (e.g., mathematics, biology, chemistry, and physics) are often taught in isolation from each other, as well as in isolation from social science issues, such as cultural studies, economics, and political science. Thus, it is an unfamiliar challenge for the high school students to consider problems' interdependence across multiple domains. Integrating concepts and presenting issues in a systems perspective is essential, however, to educating the next generation of engineers (NAE 2004), so this is a major goal in the development of content.

To address these challenges, we balance the presentation of facts required to frame issues and active periods of problem solving, and we use issues related to the local area when we are able. A typical Green Design Apprenticeship day includes background material presented in an interactive manner, student problem solving involving engineering calculations, collaborative small-group work, hands-on activities and demonstrations, discussion, and opportunities for interaction with GDI researchers and students. All modules and activities used in the Green Design Apprenticeship cannot be detailed in this space; descriptions for selected activities are provided as Supplementary Material on the Web. Additional detail is available from us.

Updating Green Design Apprenticeship content to remain current is likely the most time-consuming effort of the planning for each day and requires annual alteration of program activities. To minimize creation of completely new educational materials, we update case study examples only with the most recent data, incorporate new stations into a set routine, and use local news stories for inspiration. For example, during the program's 3rd year, a research interest of the GDI was expanding on green building research into community sustainable development ideas. At the same time, the local area experienced an increase in certified green building projects. Consequently, we expanded the green building component of the program to include a sustainable community development discussion. The module had students brainstorm how green building ideas might be implemented across a community and discuss the impacts these ideas would have on the community (e.g., less congestion and air pollution with increased public transportation ridership). In the midst of the program's 4th year, a local city councilman was advocating for sustainable community development in Pittsburgh. Newspaper articles and specific proposals of the councilman were then introduced into the sustainability community development discussion. Activities continue to take advantage of local press coverage as fodder for discussion topics and to help students connect the industrial ecology concepts and research to their daily lives.

To present material in which concepts from several disciplines are integrated and to emphasize the systems thinking objective, we developed research and presentation modules as capstone activities to many of the program days. These longer problem-solving sessions require groups of three to four high school students to perform short investigative research. Each group is led by a graduate student. These group activities usually consist of a problem statement or solution goal (e.g., reduced petroleum consumption from personal vehicles) as well as several technology options that must be considered (e.g., ethanol vehicles, plug-in electric hybrid vehicles). Student groups choose a technology option, research the option using instructor-provided materials and online sources, estimate various option parameters (e.g., number of vehicles needed to meet the goal, change in life cycle carbon dioxide [CO2] emissions), and create a presentation with their findings. Each group then presents its results to the larger group. Finally, the students discuss how effective the various technology options are for achieving the desired outcome, considering the life cycle impacts and debating the trade-offs in choosing a particular option. These activities require the high school students to interpret information from a variety of sources, consider multiple viewpoints, do quantitative analyses, identify trade-offs, and summarize results—similar to how the graduate students approach research and to how “real” engineers tackle problems. The transportation alternatives lesson plan included in the Supplementary Material on the Web provides detailed information for one such activity.

The final content of each program year is a result of collaborative decision making and negotiation of ideas among the contributors. The challenge of designing relevant industrial ecology activities that are appropriate for high school students has sparked vast amounts of graduate student creativity. The result is a comprehensive set of original activities that not only enhance the program but also have been reworked for use in university courses, campus visit days, shorter outreach experiences, and even donor relations events. Thus, the program extends the capabilities of the GDI to bring industrial ecology content to broader audiences, without additional investment in developing materials.

Program and Student Assessment

We do not include formal assessment of student learning in the activities of the program. We do informally monitor student understanding during group discussions and individual interactions between researchers and program participants. Before the first meeting of the Green Design Apprenticeship, students are sent preassessment forms to assess prior knowledge and to aid in the creation of activities that match participants' academic levels, address their interests in green design engineering, and challenge any existing misconceptions. At the end of each Green Design Apprenticeship day, students are asked to provide written reflection on the day's activities. From these responses, it is obvious that the students are achieving the learning objectives we have for the program and are leaving with a greater appreciation of interactions among materials, products, and the environment and a higher level of systems thinking. This regular student feedback on the strengths and weaknesses of various activities also helps us adapt activities from year to year.

Student responses to questionnaires given at the end of the program indicate that we are achieving our objectives. Students are more aware of engineering and its related activities and recognize how engineering intersects with environmental and social issues. Students mention applying the concepts learned in their everyday lives (e.g., finding ways to reduce driving or considering the life cycle impacts of purchases) and express interest in researching topics independently (e.g., use of biofuels, green roofs for their schools). Many students indicate that engineering is a field they are interested in pursuing, and most report a desire to include environmental topics (regardless of whether they want to pursue engineering). Perhaps the best testament to the success of the program is that two female participants in the apprenticeship have enrolled at CMU in the Civil and Environmental Engineering program.

Benefits to Research and Researchers

  1. Top of page
  2. Summary
  3. Introduction
  4. Overview of the Green Design Apprenticeship Program
  5. Green Design Apprenticeship Content
  6. Benefits to Research and Researchers
  7. Conclusions
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. References
  10. About the Authors
  11. Supporting Information

Developing, updating, staging, and presenting the Green Design Apprenticeship requires extensive time and effort. Despite the work, all of the GDI researchers and graduate students involved readily acknowledge that all stages of program development have benefits that reach far beyond the Green Design Apprenticeship program into their basic research, their methods for presenting research, and their teaching.

Improving Graduate Student Instructors' Industrial Ecology Research

In the tradition of an apprenticeship, the Green Design Apprenticeship is an opportunity for the participating high school students to interact with and learn from experts. The experts are the GDI graduate students who have knowledge about the issues and an insight into systems thinking, an expertise that few other people have. The Green Design Apprenticeship gives the graduate students an opportunity to step out of their own roles as learners and into a position of guiding others. Recently enrolled graduate students, who contribute to the program as group leaders, come to realize how knowledgeable they actually are and find motivation to learn more about the topics covered in the program.

Senior graduate students, who contribute fully via content development and delivery, recognize the wealth of knowledge and understanding they have acquired. These students are transitioning to a mastery level in the industrial ecology field, and seeing that their efforts in course work and research have made them “experts” is encouragement to continue. Moreover, these students must confront the issues of organizing and connecting content. These early struggles with how to present integrated material helps to develop their own individual representations of industrial ecology, making them better able to approach integrated research.

Whereas combining various industrial ecology topics acquaints the high school students with a wide array of concepts, the Green Design Apprenticeship also exposes the graduate student instructors to ideas outside of their particular areas of expertise. Their participation helps them identify how their small piece of research fits into the broader field of industrial ecology. For example, one student's graduate studies may focus on sustainability, life cycle assessment, and policy development with respect to material use. Helping to plan the Green Design Apprenticeship may expose this student to broader energy, water, and transportation issues, thus demonstrating how his or her own research in materials use could be applied to or framed by other areas. Developing program content also helps synthesize individual interests in analysis methods, policy applications, and environmental decision making.

Presenting Industrial Ecology Research

Even when the goal is to reach and influence the world at large, academic researchers can become alienated from society by focusing too much on the details. This situation may occur when researchers become so involved in their work that they feel it is too hard to communicate complex analyses to people without the necessary background knowledge to understand advanced topics. Thus, experts face the challenge of making research concepts more approachable for the public.

One graduate student noted that developing Green Design Apprenticeship material enabled her to understand how incomprehensible some higher level research is. This realization energized the student to think critically about how to make industrial ecology topics more accessible to people with less prior knowledge. Another graduate student noted that he might be “too close” to his work to see how it fits into the bigger picture of policy and consumer decisions. Participants' misconceptions, questions, and reactions provide direct, outside feedback on graduate students' explanations, which, in turn, helps graduate students and GDI researchers to refine their ability to discuss complex topics using simple language and easily conveyed examples. Being exposed to the program participants' high-school-level questions helps GDI graduate students and researchers expand their understanding of their own work and enhance their ability to communicate about it effectively. As a result, after participating in just a single or partial Green Design Apprenticeship day, graduate students have greater confidence speaking more generally about industrial ecology.

After participating in the Green Design Apprenticeship, graduate students also recognize the fine line between communicating important messages and oversimplifying information to the point of making it irrelevant. To be pertinent, industrial ecology messages and concepts must retain their inherent complexity, but the presentation must be simplified for easy comprehension. Consequently, we often developed program content by breaking down a larger problem into components, assigning groups to work on the various pieces, and reassembling everything at the end to discuss the big picture (e.g., the research and presentation module described earlier). To increase relevancy, we tended to devise scenarios with issues that resonated with local high school students and exemplified or surrounded complex industrial ecology problems. For example, we might have students estimate the electricity consumed in their own bedroom (rather than for a household) or use local maps and photos to identify problems resulting from combined sewer overflow. These tactics allow the Green Design Apprenticeship to present industrial ecology concepts in a framework that highlight the careers and problems students are likely to encounter in the future.

Lessons in Teaching

A large benefit of the Green Design Apprenticeship program is that it provides graduate students with teaching experience. In GDI, all graduate students are research assistants, and they rarely have the opportunity to teach a course on their own due to adequate faculty presence. Consequently, teaching experience is gained through guest lecture opportunities. These opportunities tend to be in advanced, graduate-level classes, and the regular instructor typically defines the scope of material to be presented. Therefore, participating in the Green Design Apprenticeship provides graduate students with a glimpse at the demands, challenges, and time commitments encountered in the development and delivery of course content. Graduate students recognize the need to define clear objectives for each concept prior to developing instructional strategies. To maximize student participation throughout the day, they experience the iterative nature of designing, testing, and revising activities. Most important, graduate student instructors acknowledge that presenting material to a graduate student class or in a research seminar is very different from helping high school students learn the same material.

With regard to specific content, a challenge for translating our research into instructional material and activities was finding the right balance between what we needed to tell students and what students needed to do themselves (i.e., lecture vs. active learning activities). Our research process includes reading and synthesizing journal articles and manipulating volumes of data in computer applications. And because the Green Design Apprenticeship high school students are bright and inquisitive, the program aims to challenge their mathematical and critical thinking skills in ways that vary from an average day of high school. So, in designing content, we often found ourselves struggling with the best instructional means for conveying our learning objectives that minimized lecturing and maximized active learning.

At an early Green Design Apprenticeship planning meeting, one of the most animated discussions revolved around what we could (or should) expect the high school students to do in terms of calculations. On one hand, students being introduced to engineering activities should be actively involved in the mathematical calculations required to reach a final solution. This would strengthen their analytical skills while emphasizing the importance of properly setting up a problem and using units correctly. On the other hand, the educational objectives related to describing the industrial ecology aspects of a problem suggested that the students could spend more time discussing a problem's result and its implications. This discussion could focus on the issues' uncertainty and complexity as well as the need for decision-making tools. Both strategies have value for student learning (NRC 2000), and we strive for a balance between working through calculations and discussion in the design of each activity. In reality, most Green Design Apprenticeship activities include guided group work in which students use real data and perform appropriate calculations, which is then complemented with discussions and result comparison. This setup requires pregeneration of discussion questions and problem solutions, which are essential teaching proficiencies for graduate students to acquire. At first, the Green Design Apprenticeship high school students note that these exercises are difficult, but after working through them, the participants acknowledge that the exercises give them a sense of the difficulties engineers face in solving problems.

Conclusions

  1. Top of page
  2. Summary
  3. Introduction
  4. Overview of the Green Design Apprenticeship Program
  5. Green Design Apprenticeship Content
  6. Benefits to Research and Researchers
  7. Conclusions
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. References
  10. About the Authors
  11. Supporting Information

In creating the Green Design Apprenticeship, we tried to develop educational content that exposes high school students to industrial ecology concepts while emphasizing engineers' roles in decision making. The program addresses larger industrial ecology ideas by using different days of the program to focus on separate topics: life cycles, energy, water, transportation, built infrastructure, and life cycle decision making. Each of these days balances factual knowledge transfer, involvement in hands-on exercises, and analysis through discussions. Ultimately, the Green Design Apprenticeship emphasizes that it does not matter what type of field (engineering or otherwise) the high school students want to enter when they grow up, because any person, individually or professionally, can include concepts of industrial ecology in his or her decision making.

Beyond the learning objectives for the Green Design Apprenticeship high school students, the program enhances the graduate experience of GDI students who participate in instruction and content development. The insights GDI researchers and graduate students gain are invaluable in relation to their own knowledge and research of industrial ecology topics, communication of research results and industrial ecology topics, and teaching-related skills. The teaching materials have also proven useful in other outreach efforts. Although much time and effort have been required to design and organize the program, the graduate student participants have benefited greatly by the experience.

We hope this experience will inspire other researchers to seek out opportunities to share industrial ecology concepts and tools with younger students and the public. Our work described here is the result of more than 5 years of cumulative effort, beginning with a just a few activities from prior outreach efforts and evolving into a full 6-day program. We encourage colleagues to find established programs between universities and primary schools where their participation is desired and to build onto their outreach portfolio over time.

Acknowledgements

  1. Top of page
  2. Summary
  3. Introduction
  4. Overview of the Green Design Apprenticeship Program
  5. Green Design Apprenticeship Content
  6. Benefits to Research and Researchers
  7. Conclusions
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. References
  10. About the Authors
  11. Supporting Information

We wish to thank the faculty, staff, and graduate students of Carnegie Mellon University and the Green Design Institute who have contributed to the support, development, and continuation of the Green Design Apprenticeship. Partial funding for this project has been provided by U.S. National Science Foundation Grants 0328870 and 0628084 and by Carnegie Mellon University's Steinbrenner Institute for Environmental Education and Research. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are ours and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

References

  1. Top of page
  2. Summary
  3. Introduction
  4. Overview of the Green Design Apprenticeship Program
  5. Green Design Apprenticeship Content
  6. Benefits to Research and Researchers
  7. Conclusions
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. References
  10. About the Authors
  11. Supporting Information
  • AIU (Allegheny Intermediate Unit). 2008. Allegheny Intermediate Unit: GATE apprenticeships. http://www.aiu3.net/Level3.aspx?id=1194. Accessed 9 February 2009.
  • Eshel, G. and P. Martin. 2006. Diet, energy, and global warming. Earth Interactions 10(9): 117.
  • Graedel, T. E. and B. R. Allenby. 2003. Industrial ecology. Second edition. Upper Saddle River , NJ : Pearson Education.
  • Kim, H., G. Keoleian, and Y. Horie. 2006. Optimal household refrigerator replacement policy for life cycle energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and cost. Energy Policy 34(15): 23102323.
  • Lipman, B. 2006. A heavy load: The combined housing and transportation burdens of working families. Washington , DC : Center for Housing Policy.
  • NAE (National Academy of Engineering). 2004. The engineer of 2020: Visions of engineering in the new century. Washington , DC : National Academies Press.
  • NRC (National Research Council). 2000. How People Learn. Washington , DC : National Academies Press.
  • NSF (National Science Foundation). 2008. National Science Foundation grant proposal guide: Chapter 3: NSF proposal processing and review. http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/policydocs/pappguide/nsf08_1/gpg_3.jsp#IIIA2. Accessed 9 February 2009.
  • Schroeder, C. M., T. P. Scott, H. Tolson, T.-Y. Huang, and Y.-H. Lee. 2007. A meta-analysis of national research: Effects of teaching strategies on student achievement in science in the United States. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 44(10): 14361460.
  • Sivaraman, D., S. Pacca, K. Mueller, and J. Lin. 2007. Comparative energy, environmental, and economic analysis of traditional and e-commerce DVD rental networks. Journal of Industrial Ecology 11(3): 7792.

About the Authors

  1. Top of page
  2. Summary
  3. Introduction
  4. Overview of the Green Design Apprenticeship Program
  5. Green Design Apprenticeship Content
  6. Benefits to Research and Researchers
  7. Conclusions
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. References
  10. About the Authors
  11. Supporting Information

Deanna H. Matthews is a research engineer at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Troy R. Hawkins was a graduate student at CMU at the time the article was written. He is currently a postdoctoral researcher at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway. Paulina Jaramillo was a graduate student at CMU at the time the article was written and is currently a postdoctoral researcher at CMU. Joe Marriott was a graduate student at CMU at the time the article was written. He is currently an assistant professor at the University of Pittsburgh in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Aurora L. Sharrard was a graduate student at CMU at the time the article was written. She is currently the research manager at the Green Building Alliance in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Supporting Information

  1. Top of page
  2. Summary
  3. Introduction
  4. Overview of the Green Design Apprenticeship Program
  5. Green Design Apprenticeship Content
  6. Benefits to Research and Researchers
  7. Conclusions
  8. Acknowledgements
  9. References
  10. About the Authors
  11. Supporting Information

Supplement S1. This supplement contains descriptions of the following activities for students: life cycle thinking, estimating personal electricity consumption, regional electricity generation mixes, transportation policy analysis, and green campus tour.

FilenameFormatSizeDescription
JIEC_131_sm_SuppMat.pdf152KSupporting info item

Please note: Wiley Blackwell is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing content) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article.