• activity model;
  • industrial ecology;
  • integrated definition language (IDEF0);
  • life cycle assessment (LCA);
  • process systems engineering;
  • risk assessment (RA)


For the practical implementation of the assessment of environmental impact, actual procedures and data requirements should be clarified so that industrial decision makers understand them. Researchers should consider local risks related to processes and environmental impact throughout the life cycle of products simultaneously to supervise these adverse effects appropriately. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a useful tool for quantifying the potential impact associated with a product life cycle. Risk assessment (RA) is a widely used tool for identifying chemical risks in a specific situation. In this study, we integrate LCA and RA for risk-based decision making by devising a hierarchical activity model using the type-zero method of integrated definition language (IDEF0). The IDEF0 activity modeling language has been applied to connect activities with information flows. Process generation, evaluation, and decision making are logically defined and visualized in the activity model with the required information. The activities, information flows, and their acquisitions are revealed, with a focus on which data should be collected by on-site engineers. A case study is conducted on designing a metal cleaning process reducing chemical risks due to the use of a cleansing agent. LCA and RA are executed and applied effectively on the basis of integrated objective settings and interpretation. The proposed activity model can be used as a foundation to incorporate such assessments into actual business models.