• aluminum;
  • design for environment (DfE);
  • industrial ecology;
  • mathematical programming;
  • scrap;
  • uncertainty


As design for recycling becomes more broadly applied in material and product design, analytical tools to quantify the environmental implications of design choices will become a necessity. Currently, few systematic methods exist to measure and direct the metallurgical alloy design process to create alloys that are most able to be produced from scrap. This is due, in part, to the difficulty in evaluating such a context-dependent property as recyclability of an alloy, which will depend on the types of scraps available to producers, the compositional characteristics of those scraps, their yield, and the alloy specification itself. This article explores the use of a chance-constrained based optimization model, similar to models used in operational planning in secondary production today, to (1) characterize the challenge of developing recycling-friendly alloys due to the contextual sensitivity of recycling, (2) demonstrate how such models can be used to evaluate the potential scrap usage of alloys, and (3) explore the value of sensitivity analysis information to proactively identify effective alloy modifications that can drive increased potential scrap use. These objectives are demonstrated through two cases that involve the production of a broad range of alloys utilizing representative scraps from three classes of industrial end uses.