The absence of detailed information on residential energy end use characteristics for the United States has in the past presented an impediment to the effective development and targeting of residential energy efficiency programs. This article presents a framework for modeling space heating, cooling, water heating, and appliance energy end uses, fuels used, and carbon emissions at a zip code–level resolution for the entire United States. It combines a regression-based statistical model derived from Residential Energy Consumption Survey data with U.S. census 2000 five-digit zip code level information, climate division–level temperature data, and other sources. The results show large variations in energy use characteristics both between and within different regions of the country, with particularly notable differences in the magnitude of and distribution by fuel of residential energy use in urban and rural areas. The results are validated against residential energy sales data and have useful implications for both residential energy efficiency planning and further study of variations in use patterns.