Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Thin-film Photovoltaic Electricity Generation
Systematic Review and Harmonization
Article first published online: 6 MAR 2012
© 2012 by Yale University
Journal of Industrial Ecology
Special Issue: Meta-Analysis of Life Cycle Assessments
Volume 16, Issue Supplement s1, pages S110–S121, April 2012
How to Cite
Kim, H. C., Fthenakis, V., Choi, J.-K. and Turney, D. E. (2012), Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Thin-film Photovoltaic Electricity Generation. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 16: S110–S121. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-9290.2011.00423.x
- Issue published online: 3 MAY 2012
- Article first published online: 6 MAR 2012
- 2009. Methodology guidelines on life cycle assessment of photovoltaic electricity, subtask 20 “LCA” . IEA PVPS Task 12. Paris : International Energy Agency. , , , , , , , , and .
- 2006. Environmental impacts of PV electricity generation—A critical comparison of energy supply options. Paper presented at the 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, 4–6 September 2006, Dresden , Germany . , , and .
- 2009. Renewable and sustainable. Presentation at the CrystalClear final event, 26 May 2009, Munich , Germany .
- 2010. Prospective CO2 emissions from energy supplying systems: Photovoltaic systems and conventional grid within Spanish frame conditions. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 15(6): 557–566. , , , , and .
- Energy Business Review. 2010. Company overview, United Solar Ovonic, LLC. http://www.energy-business-review.com/companies/united_solar_ovonic_llc. Accessed 20 June 2011.
- 2006. Ethanol can contribute to energy and environmental goals. Science 311(5760): 506–508. , , , , , and .
- First Solar. 2011. First Solar overview. http://www.firstsolar.com/Downloads/pdf/FastFacts_PHX_NA.pdf. Accessed 20 June 2011.
- 2007. Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing. In Climate change 2007: The physical science basis , edited by S. Solomon et al. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and .
- 2004. Photovoltaic (PV) systems: Final report . Rome : Ambiente Italia. , , and .
- 2007. Strommix und Stromnetz. Sachbilanzen von Energiesystemen. Final report no. 6 ecoinvent data v2.0 . Dübendorf , Switzerland : Swiss Centre for LCI. , , , , and .
- 2006. Photovoltaics energy payback times, greenhouse gas emissions and external costs: 2004–early 2005 status. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 14(3): 275–280. and .
- 2006. Energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the life cycle of CdTe photovoltaics. Paper presented at the Materials Research Society symposium, 28 November-2 December, Boston . and .
- 2007. Greenhouse-gas emissions from solar electric and nuclear power: A life-cycle study. Energy Policy 35(4): 2549–2557. and .
- 2008. Emissions from photovoltaic life cycles. Environmental Science & Technology 42(6): 2168–2174. , , and .
- 2009. Update of PV energy payback times and life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. Presented at the 24th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, 21–25 September, Hamburg , Germany . , , , , and .
- 2010. Personal communication with M. Held, Abteilung Ganzheitliche Bilanzierung, LBP, University of Stuttgart. Germany ; October.
- 2005. Life cycle GHG emission analysis of power generation systems: Japanese case. Energy 30(11–12): 2042–2056.
- 2010. Personal communication with M. Ito, Tokyo Institute of Technology; October.
- 2008. A comparative study on cost and life-cycle analysis for 100 MW very large-scale PV (VLS-PV) systems in deserts using m-Si, a-Si, CdTe, and CIS modules. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 16(1): 17–30. , , , , and .
- 2009. A comparative LCA study on potential of very-large scale PV systems in Gobi desert. Presented at the 34th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 7–12 June 2009, Philadelphia , PA , USA . , , and .
- 2010. Life-cycle analyses of very-large scale PV systems using six types of PV modules. Current Applied Physics 10: S271–S273. , , and .
- 2001. Life-cycle analysis on thin-film CdS/CdTe PV modules. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 67(1–4): 279–287. , , , , , and .
- 1998. Energy pay-back time and life-cycle CO2 emission of residential PV power system with silicon PV module. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 6(2): 105–115. , , and .
- 2003. Modeling the life cycle energy and environmental performance of amorphous silicon BIPV roofing in the US. Renewable Energy 28(2): 271–293. and .
- 1997. A total fuel cycle approach to reducing greenhouse gas emissions: Solar generation technologies as greenhouse gas offsets in U.S. utility systems. Solar Energy 59(4–6): 195–203.
- 2006. Energy payback and life-cycle CO2 emissions of the BOS in an optimized 3.5MW PV installation. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 14(2): 179–190. , , , and .
- 2002. Life-cycle assessment of electricity generation systems and applications for climate change policy analysis thesis. Madison , WI : University of Wisconsin.
- 2006. Life cycle assessment of the 33 kW photovoltaic system on the Dana Building at the University of Michigan: Thin film laminates, multi-crystalline modules, and balance of system components . CSS05-09. Ann Arbor , MI , USA : University of Michigan. , , and .
- 2007. Parameters affecting the life cycle performance of PV technologies and systems. Energy Policy 35(6): 3316–3326. , , and .
- 2010. Personal communication with M. Raugei, Environmental Management Research Group, Escola Superior de Commerç Internacional-Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain; October.
- 2007. Life cycle assessment and energy pay-back time of advanced photovoltaic modules: CdTe and CIS compared to poly-Si. Energy 32(8): 1310–1318. , , and .
- SENSE. 2008. LCA analysis: Sustainability evaluation of solar energy systems, revised version . Stuttgart , Germany : University of Stuttgart.
- 1996a. Life cycle analysis of electricity generation and supply systems: Net energy analysis and greenhouse gas emissions. Paper presented at Electricity, Health and the Environment: Comparative Assessment in Support of Decision Making,16–19 October, Vienna , Austria .
- 1996b. Validity of FENCH-GHG study: Methodologies and databases. Comparison of energy sources in terms of their full-energy-chain emission factors of greenhouse gases. Paper presented at the IAEA advisory group meeting on analysis of net energy balance and full-energy-chain greenhouse gas emissions for nuclear and other energy systems, 4–7 October, Beijing , China .
- 1997. Life cycle analysis of photovoltaic cell and wind power plants. Paper presented at the IAEA advisory group meeting on the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from the full energy chain of solar and wind power, 21–24 October, Vienna , Austria .
- 1995. Evaluation of photovoltaic energy systems in terms of economics, energy and CO2 emissions. Energy Conversion and Management 36(6–9): 819–822. , , , and .