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Keywords:

  • by-product;
  • cobenefits;
  • coordination;
  • industrial ecology;
  • policy analysis;
  • National Industrial Symbiosis Programme (NISP)

Summary

While much work has been done on the conditions surrounding the emergence and establishment of industrial symbiosis (IS), new attention is being paid to understanding the evolution of IS over time. We demonstrate empirically how a new, facilitated IS initiative developed and evolved over an 8-year period. We explore its network evolution by considering how the facilitator's actions enabled and precluded two fundamental network processes—serendipitous and goal-directed processes. We discuss implications for a more generalized theory of IS development by exploring why and how different evolutionary trajectories may unfold.