The Evolution of Facilitated Industrial Symbiosis


  • Raymond L. Paquin,

  • Jennifer Howard-Grenville

Raymond Paquin, Department of Management, John Molson School of Business Concordia University, 1450 Rue Guy, Montreal, QC H3G 1M8, Canada. Email:


While much work has been done on the conditions surrounding the emergence and establishment of industrial symbiosis (IS), new attention is being paid to understanding the evolution of IS over time. We demonstrate empirically how a new, facilitated IS initiative developed and evolved over an 8-year period. We explore its network evolution by considering how the facilitator's actions enabled and precluded two fundamental network processes—serendipitous and goal-directed processes. We discuss implications for a more generalized theory of IS development by exploring why and how different evolutionary trajectories may unfold.