Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Electricity Generation
Systematic Review and Harmonization
Version of Record online: 19 MAR 2012
© 2012 by Yale University
Journal of Industrial Ecology
Special Issue: Meta-Analysis of Life Cycle Assessments
Volume 16, Issue Supplement s1, pages S122–S135, April 2012
How to Cite
Hsu, D. D., O’Donoughue, P., Fthenakis, V., Heath, G. A., Kim, H. C., Sawyer, P., Choi, J.-K. and Turney, D. E. (2012), Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Electricity Generation. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 16: S122–S135. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-9290.2011.00439.x
- Issue online: 3 MAY 2012
- Version of Record online: 19 MAR 2012
- 2000. Energy pay-back time and CO2 emissions of PV systems. Progress in Photovoltaics 8(1): 17–25.
- 2006. Environmental impacts of crystalline silicon photovoltaic module production. Paper presented at the 13th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, 31 May–2 June, Leuven, Belgium . and .
- 2009. Methodology guidelines on life cycle assessment of photovoltaic electricity . IEA-PVPS T12-01:2009. Paris : International Energy Agency. , , , , , , , , and .
- 2012. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from concentrating solar power electricity generation: Systematic review and harmonization. Journal of Industrial Ecology . DOI: 10.1111/j.1530-9290.2011.00474.x. and .
- 2007. Environmental life cycle inventory of crystalline silicon photovoltaic system production—Status 2005/2006 . Petten, the Netherlands: ECN Solar Energy.
- 2009. Quantifying avoided fuel use and emissions from solar photovoltaic generation in the western United States. Environmental Science & Technology 43(1): 226–232. , , and .
- 2007. Life cycle inventory for electricity generation in China. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 12(4): 217–224. , , , and .
- 2012. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas-fired electricity generation: Systematic review and harmonization. Journal of Industrial Ecology . DOI: 10.1111/j.1530-9290.2012.00464.x. , , and .
- 2009. Assessment of sustainability indicators for renewable energy technologies. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 13(5): 1082–1088. , , and .
- 2006. Ethanol can contribute to energy and environmental goals. Science 311(5760): 506–508. , , , , , and .
- 2007. Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing. In Climate change 2007: The physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change , edited by S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller. Cambridge , UK and New York: Cambridge University Press. , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and .
- 2005. Final report on technical data, costs and life cycle inventories of PV applications . Deliverable no. 11.2-RS Ia of the NEEDS (New Energy Externalities Developments for Sustainability) project, Rome , Italy . , , , , and .
- 2006. Photovoltaics energy payback times, greenhouse gas emissions and external costs: 2004–early 2005 status. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 14(3): 275–280. and .
- 2008. Emissions from photovoltaic life cycles. Environmental Science & Technology 42(6): 2168–2174. , , and .
- 2010. Long-term performance and reliability assessment of 8 PV arrays at Sandia National Laboratories . Albuquerque , NM : Sandia National Laboratories. , , , and .
- 2007. Renewables and the grid: Understanding intermittency. Energy 160: 31–41. , , , , , and .
- 2005. The life cycle CO2 emission performance of the DOE/NASA solar power satellite system: A comparison of alternative power generation systems in Japan. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part C: Applications and Reviews 35(3): 391–400. , , and .
- 2012. Background and reflections on the LCA harmonization project. Journal of Industrial Ecology. DOI: 10.1111/j.1530-9290.2012.00478.x and .
- 2003. Status, trends, challenges and the bright future of solar electricity from photovoltaics. In Handbook of photovoltaic science and engineering , edited by A. Luque and S. S. Hegedus. West Sussex , UK : John Wiley & Sons. and .
- 2005. Life cycle GHG emission analysis of power generation systems: Japanese case. Energy 30(11–12): 2042–2056.
- IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2001. Climate change 2001: The scientific basis . Cambridge , UK : Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
- ISO (International Organization for Standardization). 2006. Environmental management—Life cycle assessment—Principles and framework . ISO 14040. Geneva , Switzerland : International Organization for Standardization.
- 2009. Photovoltaics . Dubendorf , Switzerland : Swiss Centre for Life Cycle Inventories. , , and .
- 2007. Life cycle energy, emissions and cost inventory of power generation technologies in Singapore. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 11(4): 702–715. , , , and .
- 2012. Life cycle GHG emissions of thin-film photovoltaic electricity generation: Systematic review and harmonization. Journal of Industrial Ecology . DOI: 10.1111/j.1530-9290.2011.00423.x , , , and .
- 2001. Empirical investigation of the energy payback time for photovoltaic modules. Solar Energy 71(3): 165–172. and .
- LDK. 2010. LDK—World-class solar wafer manufacturer. http://www.ldksolar.com/wafer%20Mono.html. Accessed December 2010.
- 2006. Life-cycle energy balance and greenhouse gas emissions of nuclear energy in Australia. Report to the Prime Minister's Uranium Mining, Processing and Nuclear Energy Review (UMPNER) . Sydney : Integrated Sustainability Analysis, University of Sydney. , , , and .
- 2006. Energy payback and life-cycle CO2 emissions of the BOS in an optimized 3. 5MW PV installation. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 14(2): 179–190. , , , and .
- 2005. Photovoltaic power plant experience at Arizona public service: A 5-year assessment. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 13(4): 353–363. , , , , and .
- Navigant Consulting. 2009. Solar outlook . Palo Alto , CA : Navigant Consulting.
- 2006. Embodied energy analysis of photovoltaic (PV) system based on macro- and micro-level. Energy Policy 34(17): 3144–3152. and .
- 2003. Global warming effect applied to electricity generation technologies. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, CA.
- 2007. Parameters affecting the life cycle performance of PV technologies and systems. Energy Policy 35(6): 3316–3326. , , and .
- 2006. Life cycle assessment of the 33 kW photovoltaic system on the Dana Building at the University of Michigan: thin film laminates, multi-crystalline modules, and balance of system components. CSS05-09. Ann Arbor : University of Michigan. , , and .
- 2006. Dynamic life cycle assessment (LCA) of renewable energy technologies. Renewable Energy 31(1): 55–71.
- 2002. Life cycle assessment of photovoltaic systems—Trying to fight deep-seated prejudices. In Photovoltaics guidebook for decision makers , edited by A. Bubenzer and J. Luther. Berlin : Springer. , , and .
- 2008. Consequential environmental system analysis of expected offshore wind electricity production in Germany. Energy 33(5): 747–759. , , and .
- 2008. Reaching consensus in the definition of photovoltaics capacity credit in the USA: A practical application of satellite-derived solar resource data. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing 1(1): 28–33. , , , and .
- RTS Corporation. 2009. Analysis of the status and prospect of silicon for solar cell . Tokyo , Japan : RTS Corporation.
- 2009. The results of performance measurements of field-aged crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 17(4): 227–240. , , and .
- 2010. Life cycle assessment of solar PV based electricity generation systems: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14(1): 540– 544. , , and .
- 2008. Life cycle assessment of photovoltaic electricity generation. Energy 33(2): 224–232.
- 2006. Performance, cost and life-cycle assessment study of hybrid PVT/AIR solar systems. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 14(1): 65–76. , , , and .
- 1997. Life cycle analysis of photovoltaic cell and wind power plants. In IAEA advisory group meeting on the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from the full energy chain of solar and wind power . Vienna : International Atomic Energy Agency.
- U.S. EIA (Energy Information Administration). 2007. Australia energy data, statistics, and analysis—Oil, gas, electricity, coal. http://www.eia.doe.gov/cabs/Australia/Electricity.html. Accessed October 2010.
- U.S. EIA (Energy Information Administration). 2011. Solar photovoltaic cell/module manufacturing activities 2009. http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/solar.renewables/page/solarreport/solarpv.html. Accessed March 2011.
- 2012. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from nuclear electricity generation: Systematic review and harmonization. Journal of Industrial Ecology . DOI: 10.1111/j.1530-9290.2012.00472.x. and .
- 2012. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of coal-fired electricity generation: Systematic review and harmonization. Journal of Industrial Ecology . DOI: 10.1111/j.1530-9290.2012.00465.x , , , and .