China is coal dependent, and this situation will persist for a long time. Because more and more attention has been paid to energy security, the coal-chemical industry has become a hot topic and has developed quickly. To improve efficiency and reduce emissions, industrial symbiosis (IS) can be introduced when establishing a coal-chemical eco-industrial system to achieve harmonious development between nature, industry, and society. In order to learn the influence of IS on the current industrial system, a model of coal-chemical eco-industrial systems was built. Using scenario optimization and linear programming, the behaviors and optimal industrial structures of the system under different scenario settings were compared, and industrial ecological analysis was performed. By comparative analysis, results showed that the greatest proportional decrease in the use of coal for coking was 15% compared with actual data for 2005. The resource-productivity and eco-productivity were 828 yuan/ton and 2.51, which are much higher than the values of 548 yuan/ton and 1.23 in 2005. The symbiosis index and the link density were found to be 0.675 and 1.67, compared with 0.588 and 0.94 in 2005. Research results showed that the coal-chemical eco-industrial system achieved a high value-added utilization of coal and an updated product profile. Such systems will constitute the main direction and the inevitable trend of China's coal utilization in the future, which will reduce the harm to the environment from increased coal use and benefit the energy industry, the economy, and society.