Energy Intensities and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in a Social Accounting Matrix Model of the Andalusian Economy


  • M. Alejandro Cardenete,

  • Patricia D. Fuentes-Saguar,

  • Clemente Polo

Patricia D. Fuentes-Saguar, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Department of Economics, Ctra. de Utrera, km. 1 Seville 41013, Spain.


The aim of this article is to calculate energy intensity and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in Andalusia, the largest and most populated region of Spain. Energy intensities for five energy commodities used in production activities are calculated using a social accounting matrix (SAM) model with three alternative scenarios, each utilizing differing closure rules. More interestingly, by using 2005 data and updating the values of exogenous accounts, the article also provides estimates of CO2 emissions ten years out from the 1995 base year. Finally, counterfactual experiments are performed to quantify the overall reduction in direct energy coefficients that would have made it possible to maintain constant production-sector emissions from 1995 to 2005. The results indicate that there is a strong interdependence among energy sectors and the most intensive energy users; they also indicate the importance of induced effects when factor accounts and private consumption are endogenous. The estimates obtained concerning CO2 emissions are close to official estimates, both from 1995 and 2005. The counterfactual experiments indicate that a 26.5% cut in the size of direct energy requirements would have made it possible to maintain constant emissions. They also indicate that efforts to curtail emissions should be focused on improving efficiency in coal extraction and combustion and oil refining.