SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • ABB. 2010a. Environmental product declaration: AC 800M controller. Helsinki, Finland: ABB Industry Oy/Machines Group.
  • ABB. 2010b. Environmental product declaration: AC low voltage cast iron motor, type M3BP 315. Helsinki, Finland: ABB Industry Oy/Machines Group.
  • ABB. 2010c. Environmental product declaration: AC machine type HXR 355, 250 kW power. Helsinki, Finland: ABB Industry Oy/Machines Group.
  • ABB. 2010d. Environmental product declaration: ACS 600 frequency converter, 250 kW power. Helsinki, Finland: ABB Industry Oy/Machines Group.
  • ABB. 2010e. Environmental product declaration: DriveIT low voltage AC drive, ACS 800 frequency converter, 250 kW power. Helsinki, Finland: ABB Industry Oy/Machines Group.
  • Åhman, M. 2001. Primary energy efficiency of alternative powertrains in vehicles. Energy 26(11): 973989.
  • Armand, M. and J. M. Tarascon . 2008. Building better batteries. Nature 451(7179): 652657.
  • Baptista, P. , M. Tomás , and C. Silva . 2010. Plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicles market penetration scenarios. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 35(18): 1002410030.
  • Burnham, A. , M. Wang , and Y. Wu . 2006. Development and applications of GREET 2.7—The transportation vehicle-cycle model. ANL/ESD/06. Argonne, IL, USA: Argonne National Laboratory, University of Chicago, U.S. Department of Energy.
  • Classen, M. , H.-Jörg Althaus , S. Blaser , W. Scharnhorst , M. Tuchschmid , N. Jungbluth , and M. Faist Emmenegger . 2009. Life cycle inventories of metals. Final report Ecoinvent data v2.1 no, 10. Dübendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Center for Life Cycle Inventories.
  • Curran, M. A. 1996. Environmental life-cycle assessment. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional.
  • Daimler AG. 2005. Environmental certificate S-class. Mercedes-Benz. Stuttgart, Germany: Daimler AG.
  • Daimler AG. 2007a. Environmental certificate C-class. Mercedes-Benz. Stuttgart, Germany: Daimler AG.
  • Daimler AG. 2007b. Environmental certificate C-class estate. Mercedes-Benz. Stuttgart, Germany: Daimler AG.
  • Daimler AG. 2008a. Environmental certificate A-class. Mercedes-Benz. Stuttgart, Germany: Daimler AG.
  • Daimler AG. 2008b. Environmental certificate B-class. Mercedes-Benz. Stuttgart, Germany: Daimler AG.
  • Daimler AG. 2009. Life cycle – Environmental certificate for the S-400 hybrid. Mercedes-Benz. Stuttgart, Germany: Daimler AG.
  • Daimler AG. 2010b. Sustainable mobility strategy – The road to emission-free mobility. Stuttgart, Germany: Daimler AG.
  • Daimler AG. 2010a. Electrification of the drivetrain. Stuttgart, Germany: Daimler AG.
  • Defourny, J. and E. Thorbecke . 1984. Structural path analysis and multiplier decomposition within a social accounting matrix framework. Economic Journal 94(373): 111136.
  • Delucchi, M. A. 2003. A lifecycle emissions model (LEM): Lifecycle emissions from transportation fuels, motor vehicles, transportation modes, electricity use, heating and cooking fuels, and materials—Documentation of methods and data. UCD-ITS-RR-03-17-MAIN REPORT. Davis, CA, USA: Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis.
  • Duvall, M. S. 2005. Battery evaluation for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Paper presented at the IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, 7–9 September, Chicago, IL, USA.
  • Ecoinvent Centre. 2010. Ecoinvent data and reports v2.2. Dübendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Centre for Life Cycle Inventories.
  • Elgowainy, A. , A. Burnham , M. Wang , J. Molburg , and A. Rousseau . 2009. Well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. ANL/ESD/09-2. Argonne, IL, USA: Argonne National Laboratory, University of Chicago, U.S. Department of Energy.
  • European Commission. 2009. Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC. Brussels, Belgium: European Commission.
  • European Commission. 2010. European strategy on clean and energy efficient vehicles. http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/sectors/automotive/competitiveness-cars21/energy-efficient/index_en.htm. Accessed 17 December 2011.
  • Farrell, A. E. , D. Lemoine , and D. M. Kammen . 2007. Effects of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in California energy markets. Paper presented at the Transport Research Board 86th Annual Meeting, 21–25 January, Washington, DC, USA.
  • Ford Motor Company. 2007. Product sustainability index. Ford Motor Company. Köln, Germany: Ford of Europe.
  • Ford Motor Company. 2011. Ford electric vehicle plan. http://corporate.ford.com/news-center/news/press-releases/press-releases-detail/pr-ford-electric-vehicle-plan-offers-33793. Accessed 17 December 2011.
  • Gaines, L. and P. Nelson . 2009. Lithium-ion batteries: Possible materials issues. Argonne, IL, USA: Argonne National Laboratory.
  • Gaines, L. and P. Nelson . 2010. Lithium-ion batteries: Examining material demand and recycling issues. Argonne, IL, USA: Argonne National Laboratory.
  • Garg, B. D. , S. H. Cadle , P. A. Mulawa , P. J. Groblicki , C. Laroo , and G. A. Parr . 2000. Brake wear particulate matter emissions. Environmental Science & Technology 34(21): 44634469.
  • Goedkoop, M. , R. Heijungs , M. A. J. Huijbregts , A. D. Schryver , J. Struijs , and R. V. Zelm . 2009. ReCiPe 2008. Netherlands: Dutch Ministry of the Environment, The Hague.
  • Graham, R. and A. D. Little . 2001. Comparing the benefits and impacts of hybrid electric vehicle options. Palo Alto, CA, USA: Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI).
  • Greater London Authority. 2009. Turning London electric – London's electric vehicle infrastructure strategy. London, UK: Greater London Authority.
  • Guinée, J. B. , M. Gorrée , R. Heijungs , G. Huppes , R. Kleijn , A. de Koning , L. van Oers , A. Wegener Sleeswijk , S. Suh , H. A. Udo de Haes , H. de Bruijn , R. van Duin , and M. A. J. Huijbregts . 2002. Handbook on life cycle assessment – Operational guide to the ISO standards. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.
  • Hawkins, T. R. , O. M. Gausen , and A. H. Strømman . 2012. Environmental impacts of hybrid and electric vehicles – a review. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 17(8): 9971014.
  • Hertwich, E. G. 2005. Consumption and the rebound effect: An industrial ecology perspective. Journal of Industrial Ecology 9(1–2): 8598.
  • Huijbregts, M. A. J. , U. Thissen , and T. Jager . 2000. Priority assessment of toxic substances in life cycle assessment. Part II: Assessing parameter uncertainty and human variability in the calculation of toxicity potentials. Chemosphere 41(4): 575588.
  • Huo, H. , Q. Zhang , M. Q. Wang , D. G. Streets , and K. He . 2010. Environmental implication of electric vehicles in China. Environmental Science & Technology 44(13): 485661.
  • IDIS 2 Consortium. 2009. International Dismantling Information System (IDIS) v4.30. Saarbruecken, Germany: IDIS Management/tec4U GmbH.
  • IEA (International Energy Agency). 2009. Technology roadmaps – Electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. International Energy Agency. Paris, France: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.
  • IISD (International Institute for Sustainable Development). 2010. Sustainable development and the global copper supply chain: International research team report. Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada: IISD.
  • Johnson, J. , E. M. Harper , R. J. Lifset , and T. E. Graedel . 2007. Dining at the periodic table: Metals concentrations as they relate to recycling. Environmental Science & Technology 41(5): 17591765.
  • Karden, E. , S. Ploumen , B. Fricke , T. Miller , and K. Snyder . 2007. Energy storage devices for future hybrid electric vehicles. Journal of Power Sources 168(1): 211.
  • Larminie, J. and J. Lowry . 2003. Electric vehicle technology explained. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Lenzen, M. 2006. Uncertainty in impact and externality assessments – Implications for decision-making. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 11(3): 189199.
  • Lloyd, S. M. , L. B. Lave , and H. S. Matthews . 2005. Life cycle benefits of using nanotechnology to stabilize platinum-group metal particles in automotive catalysts. Environmental Science & Technology 39(5): 13841392.
  • Majeau-Bettez, G. , T. R. Hawkins , and A. H. Strømman . 2011. Life cycle environmental assessment of lithium-ion and nickel metal hydride batteries for plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicles. Environmental Science & Technology 45(10): 45484554.
  • Matheys, J. , J. V. Mierlo , J. M. Timmermans , and P. Van den Bossche . 2008. Life-cycle assessment of batteries in the context of the EU directive on end-of-life vehicles. International Journal of Vehicle Design 46(2): 189203.
  • McKinsey & Company. 2009. Paths to a low-carbon economy – Version 2 of the global greenhouse gas abatement cost curve. Chicago, IL, USA: McKinsey & Company.
  • Mccleese, D. L. and P. T. Lapuma . 2002. Using Monte Carlo simulation in life cycle assessment for electric and internal combustion vehicles. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 7(4): 230236.
  • NCDNR (North Carolina Department of Natural Resources). 2010. Anatomy of a tire. Raleigh, NC, USA: North Carolina Department of Natural Resources. http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/11/10504/html/intro/tire.htm. Accessed 16 February 2011.
  • Nakamura, S. , K. Nakajima , Y. Kondo , and T. Nagasaka . 2008. The waste input-output approach to materials flow analysis. Journal of Industrial Ecology 11(4): 5063.
  • Nemry, F. , G. Leduc , I. Mongelli , and A. Uihlein . 2008. Environmental impact of passenger cars. Seville, Spain: Joint Research Centre, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies.
  • Nissan. 2010a. Nissan Leaf. Nissan Europe – France www.nissan.fr/etc/medialib/nissaneu/_FR_fr/_Brochures/_Electric_Vehicles/103857.Par.62053.File.pdf. Accessed 20 February 2011.
  • Nissan. 2010b. Nissan Leaf. Nissan North America. www.nissanusa.com/ev/media/pdf/specs/FeaturesAndSpecs.pdf. Accessed 20 February 2011.
  • Notter, D. A. , M. Gauch , R. Widmer , P. Wäger , A. Stamp , R. Zah , and H. J. Althaus . 2010. Contribution of Li-ion batteries to the environmental impact of electric vehicles. Environmental Science & Technology 44(17): 65506556.
  • Parks, K. , P. Denholm , and T. Markel . 2007. Costs and emissions associated with plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging in the Xcel Energy Colorado service territory. NREL/TP-640-41410. Golden, CO, USA: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
  • Peters, G. P. and E. G. Hertwich . 2006. Structural analysis of international trade: Environmental impacts of Norway. Economic Systems Research 18(2): 155181.
  • Rantik, M. 1999. Life cycle assessment of five batteries for electric vehicles under different charging regimes. Stockholm, Sweden: Chalmers University of Technology.
  • Reck, B. K. , D. B. Müller , K. Rostkowski , and T. E. Graedel . 2008. Anthropogenic nickel cycle: Insights into use, trade, and recycling. Environmental Science & Technology 42(9): 3394400.
  • Röder, A. 2001. Integration of life-cycle assessment and energy planning models for the evaluation of car powertrains and fuels. Ph.D. dissertation, ETH-14291, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland.
  • Samaras, C. and K. Meisterling . 2008. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from plug-in hybrid vehicles: Implications for policy. Environmental Science & Technology 42(9): 31703176.
  • Saurat, M. and S. Bringezu . 2008. Platinum group metal flows of Europe, part 1. Journal of Industrial Ecology 12: 754767.
  • Schweimer, G. W. and M. Levin . 2000. Life cycle inventory for the Golf A4. Wolfsburg, Germany: Volkswagen AG.
  • Shiau, C.-S. N. , N. Kaushal , C. T. Hendrickson , S. B. Peterson , J. F. Whitacre , and J. J. Michalek . 2010. Optimal plug-in hybrid electric vehicle design and allocation for minimum life cycle cost, petroleum consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions. Journal of Mechanical Design 132(9): 111.
  • Shiau, C.-S. N. , C. Samaras , R. Hauffe , and J. J. Michalek . 2009. Impact of battery weight and charging patterns on the economic and environmental benefits of plug-in hybrid vehicles. Energy Policy 37(7): 26532663.
  • Shukla, A. K. and T. P. Kumar . 2008. Materials for next-generation lithium batteries. Current Science 93(3): 314331.
  • Solomon, S. , D. Qin , M. Manning , Z. Chen , M. Marquis , K. B. Averyt , M. Tignor , and H. L. Miller , eds. 2007. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Sullivan, J. L. , R. L. Williams , S. Lester , E. Cobas-Flores , S. Chubbs , S. Hentges , and S. Pomper . 1998. Life cycle inventory of a generic US family sedan: Overview of results USCAR AMP project. SAE Technical Paper Series no. 982160. Warrendale, PA, USA: SAE International.
  • Tami, R. M. 1991. Material safety data sheet: Brake lining, non-asbestos friction material – 2530-01-298-3259. Ridgeway, PA, USA: Motion Control Industries Division, Carlisle Corporation.
  • Tanaka, T. , K. Ohta , and N. Arai . 2001. Year 2000 R&D status of large-scale lithium ion secondary batteries in the national project of Japan. Journal of Power Sources 97(1–2): 26.
  • Treloar, G. J. 1997. Extracting embodied energy paths from input-output tables: Towards an input-output-based hybrid energy analysis method. Economic Systems Research 9(4): 375391.
  • UNECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe). 2005. Regulation no. 101 revision 2. Geneva, Switzerland: UNECE.
  • U.S. Department of Energy. 2011. One million electric vehicles by 2015. Washington, DC, USA: U.S. Department of Energy.
  • USAMP (U.S. Automobile Materials Partnership). 1999. Life cycle inventory analysis of a generic vehicle. Final report. Ann Arbor, MI, USA: US Automobile Materials Partnership, Ecobalance, National Pollution Prevention Center.
  • Van den Bossche, P. , F. Vergels , J. Van Mierlo , J. Matheys , and W. Van Autenboer . 2006. SUBAT: An assessment of sustainable battery technology. Journal of Power Sources 162(2): 913919.
  • Volkswagen AG. 2008a. The DSG dual-clutch gearbox: Environmental commendation – Background report. Wolfsburg, Germany: Volkswagen AG.
  • Volkswagen AG. 2008b. The Golf – Environmental commendation – Background report. Wolfsburg, Germany: Volkswagen AG.
  • Volkswagen AG. 2008c. The Passat – Environmental commendation – Background report. Wolfsburg, Germany: Volkswagen AG.
  • World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD). 2004. Mobility 2030: Meeting the challenges to sustainability. Geneva, Switzerland: WBCSD.
  • Wang, M. Q. , S. Plotkin , D. J. Santini , J. He , L. Gaines , and P. Patterson . 1997. Total energy-cycle energy and emissions impacts of hybrid electric vehicles. Argonne, IL, USA: Argonne National Laboratory, University of Chicago, U.S. Department of Energy.
  • Wang, Q. and D. L. Santini . 1993. Magnitude and value of electric vehicle emissions reductions for six driving cycles in four U.S. cities with varying air quality problems. Argonne, IL, USA: Argonne National Laboratory.
  • Zackrisson, M. , L. Avellan , and J. Orlenius . 2010. Life cycle assessment of lithium-ion batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles – Critical issues. Journal of Cleaner Production 18(15): 15191529.