This work was supported by U.S. Department of Agriculture Contract 58-1950-6019 and a National Institute of Aging training grant, Interdisciplinary Training in Gerontology, AG00048. Additional support provided by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, under Agreement 58-1950-1-137; Department of Veterans Affairs Tennessee Valley Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center; and National Institutes of Health Grant DK26657. Presented in abstract form at the 2003 Experimental Biology Meeting.
Dietary Patterns of Rural Older Adults Are Associated with Weight and Nutritional Status
Article first published online: 30 MAR 2004
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Volume 52, Issue 4, pages 589–595, April 2004
How to Cite
Ledikwe, J. H., Smiciklas-Wright, H., Mitchell, D. C., Miller, C. K. and Jensen, G. L. (2004), Dietary Patterns of Rural Older Adults Are Associated with Weight and Nutritional Status. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 52: 589–595. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2004.52167.x
- Issue published online: 30 MAR 2004
- Article first published online: 30 MAR 2004
- dietary pattern;
- nutritional status;
- weight status
Objectives: To characterize dietary patterns of rural older adults and relate patterns to weight and nutritional status.
Setting: Rural Pennsylvania.
Participants: One hundred seventy-nine community-dwelling adults aged 66 to 87 years.
Measurements: A home visit was conducted to collect demographic, health behavior, and anthropometric data and a blood sample. Five 24-hour dietary recall were administered. Cluster analysis classified participants into dietary patterns using food subgroup servings. Chi-square, analysis of covariance, and logistic regression were used to assess differences across clusters.
Results: A low-nutrient-dense cluster (n=107), with higher intake of breads, sweet breads/desserts, dairy desserts, processed meats, eggs, and fats/oils, and a high-nutrient-dense cluster (n=72) with higher intake of cereals, dark green/yellow vegetables, other vegetables, citrus/melons/berries, fruit juices, other fruits, milks, poultry, fish, and beans, were identified. Those in the high-nutrient-dense cluster had lower energy intake; higher energy-adjusted intake of fiber, iron, zinc, folate, and vitamins B6, B12, and D; higher Healthy Eating Index scores; higher plasma vitamin B12 levels; and a lower waist circumference. Those with a low-nutrient-dense dietary pattern were twice as likely to be obese, twice as likely to have low plasma vitamin B12 levels, and three to 17 times more likely to have low nutrient intake.
Conclusion: This study provides support for recommending a high-nutrient-dense dietary pattern for older adults. Behavioral interventions encouraging diets characterized by high-nutrient-dense foods may improve weight and nutritional status of older adults.