The purpose of this study was to assess vaccination status of adults in primary and specialty care practices in a retrospective review of medical records from 1997 to 2000 at one university medical center. Eligible patients were aged 50 and older and had two or more visits to primary and specialty care practices (N=14,556). Outcomes were receipt of pneumococcal vaccine once, tetanus booster within 10 years, and influenza vaccine in 2 of the 3 years. Vaccination rates for patients aged 65 and older were 59% for pneumococcal, 51% for tetanus, and 32% for influenza. Asians, Latinos, and African Americans were more likely than whites to have received influenza, pneumococcal, or tetanus vaccinations. Patients seen in primary care (41%) or in both primary care and specialty practices (42%) were more likely to receive adequate vaccination than those in specialty practices (17%) (P<.001). For pneumococcal vaccinations, relative to patients receiving specialty care only, patients receiving primary care only had an adjusted odds ratios (OR) of 6.6 (95% confidence interval (CI)=5.6–7.7) and patients in both primary care and specialty care had an OR of 7.2 (95% CI=6.2–8.3). For influenza, the corresponding ORs were 3.9 and 4.8, respectively, and for tetanus, 4.6 and 5.2. Patients who received care only from specialty practices were less likely than those with some primary care to receive adequate adult vaccinations. With the exception of Russian immigrants, the study did not find that racial and ethnic minorities had lower rates of vaccination than whites.