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Psychometric Comparisons of the Timed Up and Go, One-Leg Stand, Functional Reach, and Tinetti Balance Measures in Community-Dwelling Older People

Authors

  • Mau-Roung Lin PhD,

    1. From the *Institute of Injury Prevention and Control, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of ChinaDepartment of Nursing, National Taipei College of Nursing, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of ChinaSchool and Graduate Institute of Physical Therapy, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China§School of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of ChinaDepartment of Neurosurgery, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.
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  • Hei-Fen Hwang MS,

    1. From the *Institute of Injury Prevention and Control, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of ChinaDepartment of Nursing, National Taipei College of Nursing, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of ChinaSchool and Graduate Institute of Physical Therapy, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China§School of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of ChinaDepartment of Neurosurgery, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.
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  • Ming-Hsia Hu PhD,

    1. From the *Institute of Injury Prevention and Control, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of ChinaDepartment of Nursing, National Taipei College of Nursing, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of ChinaSchool and Graduate Institute of Physical Therapy, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China§School of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of ChinaDepartment of Neurosurgery, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.
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  • Hong-Dar Isaac Wu PhD,

    1. From the *Institute of Injury Prevention and Control, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of ChinaDepartment of Nursing, National Taipei College of Nursing, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of ChinaSchool and Graduate Institute of Physical Therapy, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China§School of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of ChinaDepartment of Neurosurgery, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.
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  • Yi-Wei Wang BS,

    1. From the *Institute of Injury Prevention and Control, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of ChinaDepartment of Nursing, National Taipei College of Nursing, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of ChinaSchool and Graduate Institute of Physical Therapy, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China§School of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of ChinaDepartment of Neurosurgery, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.
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  • Fu-Chao Huang MD

    1. From the *Institute of Injury Prevention and Control, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of ChinaDepartment of Nursing, National Taipei College of Nursing, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of ChinaSchool and Graduate Institute of Physical Therapy, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China§School of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of ChinaDepartment of Neurosurgery, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.
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  • Funding received from the Bureau of Health Promotion, Department of Health (DOH 92-PH-1103) and the National Science Council (NSC 91–2320-B-038–011), Taiwan, Republic of China.

Address correspondence to Dr. Mau-Roung Lin, Institute of Injury Prevention and Control, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wu-Hsing St., Taipei 110, Taiwan, ROC. E-mail: mrlin@tmu.edu.tw,

Abstract

Objectives: To compare the practicality, reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the timed up and go (TUG), one-leg stand (OLS), functional reach (FR), and Tinetti balance (TB) performance measures in people aged 65 and older.

Design: A prospective study.

Setting: Shin-Sher Township of Taichung County, west-central Taiwan.

Participants: Twelve hundred community-dwelling older people.

Measurements: During an initial assessment at their residences, participants were interviewed for demographics, cognition, fall history, use of a walking aid, and activities of daily living (ADLs), in addition to completing the four balance tests. Falls were ascertained by telephone every 3 months for a 1-year follow-up; the four balance measures and ADLs were also reassessed at the end of the follow-up year.

Results: Of the four balance measures, the OLS had the lowest participation rate, and participation of people who were cognitively impaired had fallen in the previous year, used a walking aid, or suffered from an ADL disability was lower than for their counterparts. The time to complete the tests ranged from 58 seconds for OLS, to 160 seconds for the TB. All four balance measures exhibited excellent test-retest reliability and discriminant validity but poor responsiveness to fall status. The TB showed better discriminant, convergent, and predictive validities and responsiveness to ADL changes than the other three tests.

Conclusion: According to psychometric properties, the most suitable performance measure for evaluating balance in community-dwelling older people was the TB, followed by the TUG.

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