• 1
    Chutka DS, Evans JM, Fleming KC et al. Symposium on geriatrics—Part I. Drug prescribing for the elderly patient. Mayo Clin Proc 1995;70: 685693.
  • 2
    Gurwitz JH, Field TS, Avorn J et al. The incidence and preventability of adverse events in nursing homes. Am J Med 2000;109: 8794.
  • 3
    Rawden E. Physiology of Aging. In: SandersAB, ed. Emergency Care of the Elder Person. St. Louis: Beverly Cracom Publications, 1996, pp 1127.
  • 4
    Stuck AE, Beers MH, Steiner A et al. Inappropriate medication use in community-residing older persons. Arch Intern Med 1994;154: 21952200.
  • 5
    Resnick NM. Geriatric medicine. In: BraunwaldE, FauciAS, KasperDL et al., eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 15th Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001, pp 3649.
  • 6
    Lindley CM, Tully MP, Paramsothy V et al. Inappropriate medication use is a major cause of adverse drug reactions in elderly patients. Age Ageing 1992;21: 294300.
  • 7
    Mannesse CK, Derkx FHM, De Ridder MAJ et al. Contribution of adverse drug reactions to hospital admission of older patients. Age Ageing 2000;29: 3539.
  • 8
    Hanlon JT, Schmader KE, Koronkowski MJ et al. Adverse drug events in high-risk older outpatients. J Am Geriatr Soc 1997;45: 945948.
  • 9
    Lazarou J, Pomeranz BH, Corey PN. Incidence of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients: A meta-analysis of prospective studies. JAMA 1998;279: 12001205.
  • 10
    Futterman R, Fillit H, Roglieri JL. Use of ineffective or unsafe medications among members of a Medicare HMO compared to individuals in a Medicare fee-for-service program. Am J Manag Care 1997;3: 569575.
  • 11
    Schmader KE, Hanlon JT, Landsman PB et al. Inappropriate prescribing and health outcomes in elderly veteran outpatients. Ann Pharmacother 1997;31: 529533.
  • 12
    Huang B, Bachmann KA, He X et al. Inappropriate prescriptions for the aging population of the United States—an analysis of the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 1997. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Safety 2002;11: 127134.
  • 13
    Ray WA, Griffin MR, Downey W. Benzodiazepines of long and short elimination half-life and the risk of hip fracture. JAMA 1989;262: 33033307.
  • 14
    Gosney M, Tallis R. Prescription of contraindicated and interacting drugs in elderly patients admitted to hospital. Lancet 1984;2: 564567.
  • 15
    Tully MP, Tallis RC. Adverse drug reaction and inappropriate prescribing in elderly patients. J Geriatr Drug Ther 1991;6: 6374.
  • 16
    Bero LA, Lipton HL, Bird JA. Characterization of geriatric drug-related hospital readmissions. Med Care 1991;29: 9891003.
  • 17
    Bates DW, Cullen DJ, Laird N et al. Incidence of adverse drug events and potential adverse drug events—implications for prevention. JAMA 1995;247: 2934.
  • 18
    Chin MH, Wang LC, Jin L et al. Appropriateness of medication selection for older persons in an urban academic emergency department. Acad Emerg Med 1999;6: 12321242.
  • 19
    Prescription Drugs and the Elderly: Many Still Receive Potentially Harmful Drugs Despite Recent Improvements (GAO Publication no. HEHS-95–152). Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office, 1995.
  • 20
    Beers MH. Explicit criteria for determining potentially inappropriate medication use by the elderly: An update. Arch Intern Med 1997;157: 15311536.
  • 21
    Beers MH, Ouslander JG, Rollingher MD et al. Explicit criteria for determining inappropriate medication use in nursing home residents. Arch Intern Med 1991;151: 18251832.
  • 22
    Wilcox SM, Himmelstein DU, Woolhander S. Inappropriate drug prescribing for the community dwelling elderly. JAMA 1994;272: 292296.
  • 23
    Beers MH, Ouslander JG, Fingold SF et al. Inappropriate medication prescribing in skilled-nursing facilities. Ann Intern Med 1992;117: 684689.
  • 24
    Beers MH, Feingold SF, Ouslander JG et al. Characteristics and quality of prescribing by doctors practicing in nursing homes. J Am Geriatr Soc 1993;41: 802807.
  • 25
    Aparasu RR, Mort JR. Inappropriate prescribing for the elderly: Beers criteria-based review. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34: 338345.
  • 26
    Golden AG, Preston RA, Barnett SD et al. Inappropriate medication prescribing in homebound older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 1999;47: 948953.
  • 27
    Sloane PD, Zimmerman S, Brown LC et al. Inappropriate medication prescribing in residential care/assisted living facilities. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002;50: 10011011.
  • 28
    Aparasu RR, Fliginger SE. Inappropriate medication prescribing for the elderly by office-based physicians. Ann Pharmacother 1997;31: 823829.
  • 29
    Aparasu RR, Sitzman SJ. Inappropriate prescribing for elderly outpatients. Am J Health Syst Pharm 1999;56: 433439.
  • 30
    Zhan C, Sangl J, Bierman AS et al. Potentially inappropriate medication use in the community-dwelling elderly—Findings from the 1996 Medicare Expenditure Panel Survey. JAMA 2001;286: 28232829.
  • 31
    Williams B, Betley C. Inappropriate use of nonpsychiatric medications in nursing homes. J Am Geriatr Soc 1995;43: 513519.
  • 32
    Spore DL, Mor V, Larrat P et al. Inappropriate drug prescriptions for elderly residents of board and care facilities. Am J Public Health 1998;87: 404409.
  • 33
    NHAMCS Description [on-line]. Available at: Accessed July 26, 2004.
  • 34
    Public Use Data File Documentation, 2000 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of Health and Human Services, 2002.
  • 35
    McCaig LF, McLemore T. Plan and operation of the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Survey. Series 1: Programs and collection procedures. Vital Health Stat 1 1994;July: 178.
  • 36
    Public Health Service and Administration. International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification. Washington, DC: U.S. Public Health Service, 1980.
  • 37
    Koch H, Campbell W. The collection and processing of drug information. Vital Health Stat 1982;22: 190.
  • 38
    Reference Resources for Understanding Census Bureau Geography [on-line]. U.S. Census Bureau. Available at Accessed July 29, 2004.
  • 39
    Eans TL. New HCFA drug-prescribing criteria for nursing homes and suggested alternate prescribing to avoid care deficiencies. Ann Long Term Care 2000;8: 5862.
  • 40
    Nananda JF, Kronholm P. The role of medication noncompliance and adverse drug reactions in hospitalizations of the elderly. Arch Intern Med 1990;50: 841845.
  • 41
    Ray WA, Griffin MR, Schaffner W. Psychotropic drug use and the risk of hip fracture. N Engl J Med 1987;316: 363369.
  • 42
    Goldberg RM, Mabee J, Chan L et al. Drug-drug and drug-disease interactions in the ED. Analysis of a high-risk population. Am J Emerg Med 1996;14: 447450.
  • 43
    Tafreeshi MJ, Melby MJ, Kaback KR et al. Medication-related visits to the emergency department: A prospective study. Ann Pharmacother 1999;33: 12521257.
  • 44
    Beers MH, Storrie M, Lee G. Potential adverse drug interactions in the emergency room. Ann Intern Med 1990;112: 6164.
  • 45
    Herr RD, Caravati EM, Tyler LS et al. Prospective interaction of adverse drug interactions in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med 1992;21: 13311336.
  • 46
    Schiff GD, Rucker TD. Computerized prescribing: Building the electronic infrastructure for better medication usage. JAMA 1998;279: 10241029.
  • 47
    Hanlon JT, Weinberger M, Samsa GP et al. A randomized, controlled trial of a clinical pharmacist intervention to improve inappropriate prescribing in elderly outpatients with polypharmacy. Am J Med 1996;100: 428437.
  • 48
    Ferris D, Menyah DK. Reducing the use of inappropriate medications in the hospitalized elderly. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2001;58: 15881592.
  • 49
    Bernstein LR, Folkman S, Lazarus RS. Characterization of the use and misuse of medications by an elderly, ambulatory population. Med Care 1989;27: 646658.
  • 50
    Fick DM, Cooper JW, Wade WE et al. Updating the Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults: Results of a U.S. consensus panel of experts. Arch Intern Med 2003;163: 27162724.