Development and Testing of a Modified Version of the Brief Pain Inventory for Use in Residential Aged Care Facilities

Authors

  • Kirsten A. Auret MBBS,

    1. From the *School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia, AustraliaMedical Director Palliative Care Unit, Hollywood Private Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, AustraliaSchool of Nursing, Midwifery§Postgraduate Medicine Centre of Excellence for Alzheimer's Disease & Care, Edith Cowan University, Churchlands, Western Australia, AustraliaDepartment of Pain Management, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia#Western Australia Centre for Cancer and Palliative Care, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia, Australia**Department of Community and Geriatric Medicine, Fremantle Hospital, Western Australia, Australia††Pharmacology and Anaesthesiology Unit‡‡Department of Anaesthesia and Pain Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
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  • Christine Toye PhD,

    1. From the *School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia, AustraliaMedical Director Palliative Care Unit, Hollywood Private Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, AustraliaSchool of Nursing, Midwifery§Postgraduate Medicine Centre of Excellence for Alzheimer's Disease & Care, Edith Cowan University, Churchlands, Western Australia, AustraliaDepartment of Pain Management, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia#Western Australia Centre for Cancer and Palliative Care, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia, Australia**Department of Community and Geriatric Medicine, Fremantle Hospital, Western Australia, Australia††Pharmacology and Anaesthesiology Unit‡‡Department of Anaesthesia and Pain Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
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  • Roger Goucke,

    1. From the *School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia, AustraliaMedical Director Palliative Care Unit, Hollywood Private Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, AustraliaSchool of Nursing, Midwifery§Postgraduate Medicine Centre of Excellence for Alzheimer's Disease & Care, Edith Cowan University, Churchlands, Western Australia, AustraliaDepartment of Pain Management, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia#Western Australia Centre for Cancer and Palliative Care, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia, Australia**Department of Community and Geriatric Medicine, Fremantle Hospital, Western Australia, Australia††Pharmacology and Anaesthesiology Unit‡‡Department of Anaesthesia and Pain Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
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  • Linda J. Kristjanson PhD,

    1. From the *School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia, AustraliaMedical Director Palliative Care Unit, Hollywood Private Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, AustraliaSchool of Nursing, Midwifery§Postgraduate Medicine Centre of Excellence for Alzheimer's Disease & Care, Edith Cowan University, Churchlands, Western Australia, AustraliaDepartment of Pain Management, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia#Western Australia Centre for Cancer and Palliative Care, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia, Australia**Department of Community and Geriatric Medicine, Fremantle Hospital, Western Australia, Australia††Pharmacology and Anaesthesiology Unit‡‡Department of Anaesthesia and Pain Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
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  • David Bruce MD,

    1. From the *School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia, AustraliaMedical Director Palliative Care Unit, Hollywood Private Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, AustraliaSchool of Nursing, Midwifery§Postgraduate Medicine Centre of Excellence for Alzheimer's Disease & Care, Edith Cowan University, Churchlands, Western Australia, AustraliaDepartment of Pain Management, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia#Western Australia Centre for Cancer and Palliative Care, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia, Australia**Department of Community and Geriatric Medicine, Fremantle Hospital, Western Australia, Australia††Pharmacology and Anaesthesiology Unit‡‡Department of Anaesthesia and Pain Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
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  • Stephan Schug MD

    1. From the *School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia, AustraliaMedical Director Palliative Care Unit, Hollywood Private Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, AustraliaSchool of Nursing, Midwifery§Postgraduate Medicine Centre of Excellence for Alzheimer's Disease & Care, Edith Cowan University, Churchlands, Western Australia, AustraliaDepartment of Pain Management, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia#Western Australia Centre for Cancer and Palliative Care, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia, Australia**Department of Community and Geriatric Medicine, Fremantle Hospital, Western Australia, Australia††Pharmacology and Anaesthesiology Unit‡‡Department of Anaesthesia and Pain Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
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Address correspondence to Dr. Kirsten Auret, Hollywood Private Hospital, Monash Ave, Nedlands WA 6009, Western Australia. E-mail: auretk@cyllene.uwa.edu.au

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: A two-phase study was conducted to refine a version of Cleeland's Brief Pain Inventory (BPI, Short Form) for use in residential aged care facilities (RACFs).

DESIGN: The Australian Pain Society modified Cleeland's BPI by changing numerical response options to word descriptors. In Phase I, this version was tested in RACFs to determine the feasibility of its use, its stability over time, and its internal consistency reliability. Minor modifications resulted. In Phase II, the refined version was abbreviated, and the internal consistency reliability of this Modified Residents' Verbal BPI was examined.

SETTING: RACFs.

PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-three residents of RACFs in Phase I, 149 in Phase II.

INTERVENTION: The study revised and abbreviated the BPI to better fit it for use in RACFs, examining the reliability of the tool.

MEASUREMENTS: Mini-Mental State Examination, Global Deterioration Scale, modified BPI.

RESULTS: The abbreviated tool comprises three items assessing pain intensity and three assessing pain interference. It also includes an item to specify pain location and a movement protocol. Cronbach alpha coefficient for six intensity and interference items was 0.72 (N=106).

CONCLUSION: This abbreviated tool requires further testing but has demonstrated adequate internal consistency reliability and is a brief, multidimensional tool that appears feasible for assessing pain in RACFs, including use with residents who have some cognitive impairment. It shows promise as a screening tool and may be useful to assess the effectiveness of pain relief interventions and to measure pain prevalence.

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