High Blood Pressure, Hypertension, and High Pulse Pressure Are Associated with Poorer Cognitive Function in Persons Aged 60 and Older: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Authors

  • Thomas Olabode Obisesan MD, MPH,

    1. From the *Department of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, Washington, District of ColumbiaDepartment of Pharmacy, Washington, District of ColumbiaDepartment of Health, Human Performance and Leisure Studies, Howard University Hospital, Washington, District of Columbia.
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  • Odunayo Abiodun Obisesan PharmD,

    1. From the *Department of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, Washington, District of ColumbiaDepartment of Pharmacy, Washington, District of ColumbiaDepartment of Health, Human Performance and Leisure Studies, Howard University Hospital, Washington, District of Columbia.
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  • Sayyida Martins MD,

    1. From the *Department of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, Washington, District of ColumbiaDepartment of Pharmacy, Washington, District of ColumbiaDepartment of Health, Human Performance and Leisure Studies, Howard University Hospital, Washington, District of Columbia.
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  • Laila Alamgir MD,

    1. From the *Department of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, Washington, District of ColumbiaDepartment of Pharmacy, Washington, District of ColumbiaDepartment of Health, Human Performance and Leisure Studies, Howard University Hospital, Washington, District of Columbia.
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  • Vernon Bond PhD,

    1. From the *Department of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, Washington, District of ColumbiaDepartment of Pharmacy, Washington, District of ColumbiaDepartment of Health, Human Performance and Leisure Studies, Howard University Hospital, Washington, District of Columbia.
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  • Celia Maxwell MD,

    1. From the *Department of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, Washington, District of ColumbiaDepartment of Pharmacy, Washington, District of ColumbiaDepartment of Health, Human Performance and Leisure Studies, Howard University Hospital, Washington, District of Columbia.
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  • Richard Frank Gillum MD, MS

    1. From the *Department of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics, Washington, District of ColumbiaDepartment of Pharmacy, Washington, District of ColumbiaDepartment of Health, Human Performance and Leisure Studies, Howard University Hospital, Washington, District of Columbia.
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Address correspondence to Thomas O. Obisesan, MD, MPH, Division of Geriatrics, Department of Medicine, Howard University Hospital, 2041 Georgia Ave, NW, Washington, DC 20060. E-mail: Tobisesan@howard.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that hypertension, high blood pressure, and high pulse pressure (PP) are independently associated with lower cognitive function.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of persons examined in 1988 to 1994.

SETTING: U.S. noninstitutionalized population.

PARTICIPANTS: Six thousand one hundred sixty-three men and women aged 60 and older who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).

MEASUREMENTS: Measurements included blood pressure, short-portable Mini-Mental State Examination (sp-MMSE), self-reported history of hypertension, diagnosis, and treatment.

RESULTS: In the initial bivariate analysis within age groups of 60 to 64, 65 to 69, and 70 to 74, optimal blood pressure (<120/80 mmHg) was associated with best cognitive performance; the severe hypertension group had the poorest performance in all age groups except the very old (≥80), where the pattern was reversed, showing poorest performance in the optimal blood pressure group and best in the group with moderate hypertension. This pattern changed slightly in multiple regression analyses modeling sp-MMSE as the outcome variable. Higher stage of hypertension according to the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure and higher PP were associated with worse cognitive performance than normal blood pressure at ages 70 to 79 and 80 and older. No significant negative association was seen in subjects aged 60 to 69. Subjects with treated but uncontrolled hypertension had significantly lower sp-MMSE scores than those without hypertension or with controlled hypertension after controlling for age, sex, ethnicity, income, and PP.

CONCLUSION: At age 70 and older, high blood pressure, hypertension, and uncontrolled blood pressure are associated with poorer cognitive function than normal blood pressure. Optimal control of blood pressure may be useful in preserving neurocognitive loss as the population ages.

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