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Stage 2 Pressure Ulcer Healing in Nursing Homes

Authors

  • Nancy Bergstrom PhD, RN,

    1. From the *Center on Aging, School of Nursing, University of Texas at Houston, Houston, TexasInstitute for Clinical Outcomes Research, Salt Lake City, UtahAgency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland§Huntsman Cancer Institute, School of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UtahSocial & Scientific Systems, Inc., Rockville, Maryland
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  • Randall Smout MS,

    1. From the *Center on Aging, School of Nursing, University of Texas at Houston, Houston, TexasInstitute for Clinical Outcomes Research, Salt Lake City, UtahAgency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland§Huntsman Cancer Institute, School of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UtahSocial & Scientific Systems, Inc., Rockville, Maryland
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  • Susan Horn PhD,

    1. From the *Center on Aging, School of Nursing, University of Texas at Houston, Houston, TexasInstitute for Clinical Outcomes Research, Salt Lake City, UtahAgency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland§Huntsman Cancer Institute, School of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UtahSocial & Scientific Systems, Inc., Rockville, Maryland
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  • William Spector PhD,

    1. From the *Center on Aging, School of Nursing, University of Texas at Houston, Houston, TexasInstitute for Clinical Outcomes Research, Salt Lake City, UtahAgency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland§Huntsman Cancer Institute, School of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UtahSocial & Scientific Systems, Inc., Rockville, Maryland
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  • Arthur Hartz MD, PhD,

    1. From the *Center on Aging, School of Nursing, University of Texas at Houston, Houston, TexasInstitute for Clinical Outcomes Research, Salt Lake City, UtahAgency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland§Huntsman Cancer Institute, School of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UtahSocial & Scientific Systems, Inc., Rockville, Maryland
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  • M. Rhona Limcangco PhD

    1. From the *Center on Aging, School of Nursing, University of Texas at Houston, Houston, TexasInstitute for Clinical Outcomes Research, Salt Lake City, UtahAgency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland§Huntsman Cancer Institute, School of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UtahSocial & Scientific Systems, Inc., Rockville, Maryland
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  • The views expressed here are those of the authors, and no official endorsement by the Department of Health and Human Services or the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality is intended or should be inferred.

Address correspondence to Nancy Bergstrom, PhD, RN, UTSON-H Center on Aging, 6901 Bertner Avenue, SON 625, Houston, TX 77030. E-mail: Nancy.Bergstrom@uth.tmc.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To identify resident and wound characteristics associated with Stage 2 pressure ulcer (PrU) healing time in nursing home residents.

DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study with convenience sampling.

SETTING: One hundred two nursing homes participating in the National Pressure Ulcer Long-Term Care Study (NPULS) in the United States.

PARTICIPANTS: Seven hundred seventy-four residents aged 21 and older with length of stay of 14 days or longer who had at least one initial Stage 2 (hereafter Stage 2) PrU.

MEASUREMENTS: Data collected for each resident over a 12-week period included resident characteristics and PrU characteristics, including area when first reached Stage 2. Data were obtained from medical records and logbooks.

RESULTS: There were 1,241 initial Stage 2 PrUs on 774 residents; 563 (45.4%) healed. Median time to heal was 46 days. Initial area was significantly associated with days to heal. Using Kaplan-Meier survival analyses, median days to heal was 33 for small (≤1 cm2), 53 days for medium (>1 to ≤4 cm2), and 73 days for large (>4 cm2) ulcers. Using Cox proportional hazard regression models to examine effects of multiple variables simultaneously, small and medium ulcers and ulcers on residents with agitation and those who had oral eating problem healed more quickly, whereas ulcers on residents who required extensive assistance with seven to eight activities of daily living (ADLs), who temporarily left the facility for the emergency department (ED) or hospital, or whose PrU was on an extremity healed more slowly.

CONCLUSION: PrUs on residents with agitation or with oral eating problems were associated with faster healing time. PrUs located on extremities, on residents who went temporarily to the ED or hospital, and on residents with high ADL disabilities were associated with slower healing time. Interaction between PrU size and place of onset was also associated with healing time. For PrU onset before or after admission to the facility, smaller size was associated with faster healing time.

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