Long-Term Care Facilities: A Cornucopia of Viral Pathogens

Authors

  • Ann R. Falsey MD,

    1. From the *Department of Medicine, Rochester General Hospital, Rochester, New YorkSchool of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, New YorkBiostatistics Unit**Nutritional Immunology Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging§Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy††Department of Pathology, Sackler Graduate School of Biochemical Sciences, Tufts University, Boston, MassachusettsSection of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine#Center for International Health and Development, School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Gerard E. Dallal PhD,

    1. From the *Department of Medicine, Rochester General Hospital, Rochester, New YorkSchool of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, New YorkBiostatistics Unit**Nutritional Immunology Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging§Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy††Department of Pathology, Sackler Graduate School of Biochemical Sciences, Tufts University, Boston, MassachusettsSection of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine#Center for International Health and Development, School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Maria A. Formica MS,

    1. From the *Department of Medicine, Rochester General Hospital, Rochester, New YorkSchool of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, New YorkBiostatistics Unit**Nutritional Immunology Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging§Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy††Department of Pathology, Sackler Graduate School of Biochemical Sciences, Tufts University, Boston, MassachusettsSection of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine#Center for International Health and Development, School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Gloria G. Andolina BS,

    1. From the *Department of Medicine, Rochester General Hospital, Rochester, New YorkSchool of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, New YorkBiostatistics Unit**Nutritional Immunology Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging§Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy††Department of Pathology, Sackler Graduate School of Biochemical Sciences, Tufts University, Boston, MassachusettsSection of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine#Center for International Health and Development, School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Davidson H. Hamer MD,

    1. From the *Department of Medicine, Rochester General Hospital, Rochester, New YorkSchool of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, New YorkBiostatistics Unit**Nutritional Immunology Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging§Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy††Department of Pathology, Sackler Graduate School of Biochemical Sciences, Tufts University, Boston, MassachusettsSection of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine#Center for International Health and Development, School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Lynette L. Leka BS,

    1. From the *Department of Medicine, Rochester General Hospital, Rochester, New YorkSchool of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, New YorkBiostatistics Unit**Nutritional Immunology Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging§Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy††Department of Pathology, Sackler Graduate School of Biochemical Sciences, Tufts University, Boston, MassachusettsSection of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine#Center for International Health and Development, School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts
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  • Simin Nikbin Meydani DVM, PhD

    1. From the *Department of Medicine, Rochester General Hospital, Rochester, New YorkSchool of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, New YorkBiostatistics Unit**Nutritional Immunology Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging§Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy††Department of Pathology, Sackler Graduate School of Biochemical Sciences, Tufts University, Boston, MassachusettsSection of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine#Center for International Health and Development, School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts
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Address correspondence to Ann R. Falsey, MD, Infectious Diseases Unit, Rochester General Hospital, 1425 Portland Avenue, Rochester, NY 14621. E-mail: ann.falsey@viahealth.org

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency and types of respiratory viruses circulating in Boston long-term care facilities (LTCFs) during a 3-year period.

DESIGN: Observational.

SETTING: Thirty-three Boston-area LTCFs over a 3-year period.

PARTICIPANTS: Residents of long-term care who had previously participated in a trial of vitamin E supplementation and had paired serum samples available for viral analysis.

MEASUREMENTS: Viral antibody titers to eight respiratory viruses (influenza A and B, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza virus serotype three (PIV-3), PIV-2, human metapneumovirus (hMPV), and coronaviruses 229E and OC43) were measured using enzyme immunoassay at baseline and 53 weeks. Infection was defined as a more than quadrupling of viral titers. Clinical data on respiratory illnesses were collected throughout the study period.

RESULTS: A total of 617 persons were enrolled in the trial. Of these, 382 (62%) had sera available for viral analysis. A total of 204 viral infections were documented in 157 subjects. Serological responses to all eight viruses were documented, with hMPV (12.8%) and coronavirus 229E (10.5%) being the most common and PIV-2 (2.4%) the least common. The occurrence of bronchitis (P=.007), pneumonia (P=.02), and any lower respiratory tract infection (P=.002) was significantly associated with having a viral diagnosis.

CONCLUSION: A wide range of respiratory viruses cocirculates in LTCFs and contributes to respiratory illness morbidity in these populations.

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