Nursing Time Devoted to Medication Administration in Long-Term Care: Clinical, Safety, and Resource Implications

Authors

  • Mary S. Thomson PhD,

    1. From the *Kunin Lunenfeld Applied Research Unit, Baycrest Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; and Meyers Primary Care Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Fallon Clinic, and Fallon Community Health Plan, Worcester, Massachusetts.
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  • Andrea Gruneir PhD,

    1. From the *Kunin Lunenfeld Applied Research Unit, Baycrest Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; and Meyers Primary Care Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Fallon Clinic, and Fallon Community Health Plan, Worcester, Massachusetts.
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  • Monica Lee MSc,

    1. From the *Kunin Lunenfeld Applied Research Unit, Baycrest Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; and Meyers Primary Care Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Fallon Clinic, and Fallon Community Health Plan, Worcester, Massachusetts.
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  • Joann Baril BS,

    1. From the *Kunin Lunenfeld Applied Research Unit, Baycrest Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; and Meyers Primary Care Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Fallon Clinic, and Fallon Community Health Plan, Worcester, Massachusetts.
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  • Terry S. Field DSc,

    1. From the *Kunin Lunenfeld Applied Research Unit, Baycrest Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; and Meyers Primary Care Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Fallon Clinic, and Fallon Community Health Plan, Worcester, Massachusetts.
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  • Jerry H. Gurwitz MD,

    1. From the *Kunin Lunenfeld Applied Research Unit, Baycrest Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; and Meyers Primary Care Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Fallon Clinic, and Fallon Community Health Plan, Worcester, Massachusetts.
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  • Paula A. Rochon MD, MPH

    1. From the *Kunin Lunenfeld Applied Research Unit, Baycrest Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; and Meyers Primary Care Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Fallon Clinic, and Fallon Community Health Plan, Worcester, Massachusetts.
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Address correspondence to Paula A. Rochon, Kunin Lunenfeld Applied Research Unit, Baycrest, 3560 Bathurst St., Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M6A 2E1. E-mail: paula.rochon@utoronto.ca

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To quantify the time required for nurses to complete the medication administration process in long-term care (LTC).

DESIGN: Time-motion methods were used to time all steps in the medication administration process.

SETTING: LTC units that differed according to case mix (physical support, behavioral care, dementia care, and continuing care) in a single facility in Ontario, Canada.

PARTICIPANTS: Regular and temporary nurses who agreed to be observed.

MEASUREMENTS: Seven predefined steps, interruptions, and total time required for the medication administration process were timed using a personal digital assistant.

RESULTS: One hundred forty-one medication rounds were observed. Total time estimates were standardized to 20 beds to facilitate comparisons. For a single medication administration process, the average total time was 62.0±4.9 minutes per 20 residents on physical support units, 84.0±4.5 minutes per 20 residents on behavioral care units, and 70.0±4.9 minutes per 20 residents on dementia care units. Regular nurses took an average of 68.0±4.9 minutes per 20 residents to complete the medication administration process, and temporary nurses took an average of 90.0±5.4 minutes per 20 residents. On continuing care units, which are organized differently because of the greater severity of residents' needs, the medication administration process took 9.6±3.2 minutes per resident. Interruptions occurred in 79% of observations and accounted for 11.5% of the medication administration process.

CONCLUSION: Time requirements for the medication administration process are substantial in LTC and are compounded when nurses are unfamiliar with residents. Interruptions are a major problem, potentially affecting the efficiency, quality, and safety of this process.

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