Portions of this research were presented as a poster presentation at the 60th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, November 16–20, 2007, San Francisco, CA; 36th Annual Scientific Meeting of the International Neuropsychological Society, February 6–9, 2008, Waikoloa, HI; Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Neurology, April 12–19, 2008, Chicago, IL; 2008 American Geriatrics Society Annual Scientific Meeting (Encore), April 30–May 5, 2008, Washington, DC; and 6th International Conference of the International Society for Gerotechnology, June 4–6, 2008, Pisa, Italy.
A Cognitive Training Program Based on Principles of Brain Plasticity: Results from the Improvement in Memory with Plasticity-based Adaptive Cognitive Training (IMPACT) Study
Article first published online: 9 FEB 2009
© 2009, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2009, The American Geriatrics Society
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Volume 57, Issue 4, pages 594–603, April 2009
How to Cite
Smith, G. E., Housen, P., Yaffe, K., Ruff, R., Kennison, R. F., Mahncke, H. W. and Zelinski, E. M. (2009), A Cognitive Training Program Based on Principles of Brain Plasticity: Results from the Improvement in Memory with Plasticity-based Adaptive Cognitive Training (IMPACT) Study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 57: 594–603. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2008.02167.x
- Issue published online: 2 APR 2009
- Article first published online: 9 FEB 2009
- clinical trial;
- cognitive decline;
- computerized cognitive training;
- participant-reported outcomes;
- brain plasticity
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the efficacy of a novel brain plasticity–based computerized cognitive training program in older adults and to evaluate the effect on untrained measures of memory and attention and participant-reported outcomes.
DESIGN: Multisite randomized controlled double-blind trial with two treatment groups.
SETTING: Communities in northern and southern California and Minnesota.
PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older (N=487) without a diagnosis of clinically significant cognitive impairment.
INTERVENTION: Participants were randomized to receive a broadly-available brain plasticity–based computerized cognitive training program (intervention) or a novelty- and intensity-matched general cognitive stimulation program modeling treatment as usual (active control). Duration of training was 1 hour per day, 5 days per week, for 8 weeks, for a total of 40 hours.
MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcome was a composite score calculated from six subtests of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status that use the auditory modality (RBANS Auditory Memory/Attention). Secondary measures were derived from performance on the experimental program, standardized neuropsychological assessments of memory and attention, and participant-reported outcomes.
RESULTS: RBANS Auditory Memory/Attention improvement was significantly greater (P=.02) in the experimental group (3.9 points, 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.7–5.1) than in the control group (1.8 points, 95% CI=0.6–3.0). Multiple secondary measures of memory and attention showed significantly greater improvements in the experimental group (word list total score, word list delayed recall, digits backwards, letter–number sequencing; P<.05), as did the participant-reported outcome measure (P=.001). No advantage for the experimental group was seen in narrative memory.
CONCLUSION: The experimental program improved generalized measures of memory and attention more than an active control program.