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Clinical Significance of Postvoid Residual Volume in Older Ambulatory Women

Authors

  • Alison J. Huang MD, MAS,

    1. From the Departments of *Medicine, Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, and ††Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California; Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; §Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington; Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia; #Group Health Center for Health Studies, Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, Washington; **San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California; and ‡‡Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, District of Columbia.
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  • Jeanette S. Brown MD,

    1. From the Departments of *Medicine, Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, and ††Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California; Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; §Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington; Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia; #Group Health Center for Health Studies, Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, Washington; **San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California; and ‡‡Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, District of Columbia.
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  • Edward J. Boyko MD, MPH,

    1. From the Departments of *Medicine, Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, and ††Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California; Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; §Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington; Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia; #Group Health Center for Health Studies, Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, Washington; **San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California; and ‡‡Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, District of Columbia.
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  • Elya E. Moore PhD,

    1. From the Departments of *Medicine, Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, and ††Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California; Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; §Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington; Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia; #Group Health Center for Health Studies, Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, Washington; **San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California; and ‡‡Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, District of Columbia.
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  • Delia Scholes PhD,

    1. From the Departments of *Medicine, Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, and ††Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California; Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; §Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington; Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia; #Group Health Center for Health Studies, Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, Washington; **San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California; and ‡‡Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, District of Columbia.
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  • Louise C. Walter MD,

    1. From the Departments of *Medicine, Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, and ††Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California; Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; §Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington; Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia; #Group Health Center for Health Studies, Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, Washington; **San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California; and ‡‡Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, District of Columbia.
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  • Feng Lin MS,

    1. From the Departments of *Medicine, Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, and ††Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California; Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; §Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington; Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia; #Group Health Center for Health Studies, Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, Washington; **San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California; and ‡‡Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, District of Columbia.
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  • Eric Vittinghoff PhD,

    1. From the Departments of *Medicine, Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, and ††Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California; Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; §Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington; Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia; #Group Health Center for Health Studies, Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, Washington; **San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California; and ‡‡Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, District of Columbia.
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  • Stephan D. Fihn MD, MPH

    1. From the Departments of *Medicine, Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, and ††Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California; Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; §Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington; Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia; #Group Health Center for Health Studies, Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, Washington; **San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California; and ‡‡Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, District of Columbia.
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  • This research was presented at the national scientific meeting of the American Geriatrics Society, Orlando, Florida, May 13, 2010.

Address correspondence to Alison Huang, 1635 Divisadero Street, Suite 600, San Francisco, CA 94115. E-mail: ahuang@ucsfmed.org

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence, natural history, and clinical significance of high postvoid residual (PVR) volume in ambulatory older women.

DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.

SETTING: Group health plan in Washington state.

PARTICIPANTS: Nine hundred eighty-seven ambulatory women aged 55 to 75.

MEASUREMENTS: PVR was measured using bladder ultrasonography at baseline, 1 year, and 2 years. Participants completed questionnaires about urinary symptoms and provided urine samples for microbiological evaluation.

RESULTS: Of the 987 participants, 79% had a PVR less than 50 mL, 10% of 50 to 99 mL, 6% of 100 to 199 mL, and 5% of 200 mL or greater at baseline. Of women with a PVR less than 50 mL, 66% reported at least one urinary symptom at baseline. Of women with a PVR of 200 mL or greater, 27% reported no significant symptoms at baseline. In adjusted analyses using data from all study visits, women with a PVR of 100 mL or greater were more likely to report urinating more than eight times during the day (odds ratio (OR)=1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.07–1.87), and women with a PVR of 200 mL or greater were more likely to report weekly urgency incontinence (OR=1.50, 95% CI=1.03–2.18) than those with a PVR less than 50 mL. High PVR was not associated with greater risk of stress incontinence, nocturnal frequency, or urinary tract infection in adjusted analyses. Forty-six percent of those with a PVR of 200 mL or greater and 63% of those with a PVR of 100 to 199 mL at baseline had a PVR less than 50 mL at 2 years.

CONCLUSION: More than 10% of ambulatory older women may have a PVR of 100 mL or greater, which is associated with greater risk of some urinary symptoms, but many with high PVR are asymptomatic, and high PVR frequently resolves within 2 years. Symptom-guided management of urinary symptoms may be more appropriate than PVR-guided management in this population.

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