• pneumococcal vaccination;
  • influenza vaccination;
  • community-acquired pneumonia

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether prior pneumococcal and seasonal influenza vaccination improves outcomes in older adults hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).

DESIGN: Prospective, observational, multicenter study.

SETTING: Five public hospitals providing universal free care to the whole population in three Spanish regions.

PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 65 and older admitted to the hospital with CAP through the emergency department.

MEASUREMENTS: Pneumococcal and influenza vaccination status. The primary study outcomes were intensive care unit (ICU) admission, length of hospital stay (LOS), and overall case-fatality rate. Outcome variables of individuals vaccinated with both vaccines were compared with outcomes of those who were unvaccinated.

RESULTS: Two hundred thirty-eight individuals had received 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and seasonal influenza vaccination and were compared with 195 unvaccinated individuals. No differences were found with respect to combined antibiotic therapy between groups (38.0% vs 39.7%; P=.80). Similar percentages of vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals required ICU admission (7.2% vs 8.2%; P=.69). Mean LOS was significantly shorter in vaccinated individuals (9.9 vs 12.4 days; P=.04). Overall case-fatality rates were similar in both groups (5.9% vs 5.1%; P=.73). After adjustment, LOS, risk of ICU admission, and overall case-fatality rate were not associated with prior pneumococcal and seasonal influenza vaccination.

CONCLUSION: The clinical outcomes of vaccinated older adults hospitalized with CAP were not better than those observed in unvaccinated individuals.