Health Behaviors as Predictors for Declines in Higher-Level Functional Capacity in Older Adults: The Ohasama Study

Authors

  • Megumi Tsubota-Utsugi PhD, MPH, RD,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Planning for Drug Development and Clinical Evaluation, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
    • Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes Project, Nutritional Epidemiology Program, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan
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  • Rie Ito-Sato MSc,

    1. Department of Planning for Drug Development and Clinical Evaluation, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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  • Takayoshi Ohkubo PhD, MD,

    1. Department of Planning for Drug Development and Clinical Evaluation, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
    2. Department of Health Science, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan
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  • Masahiro Kikuya PhD, MD,

    1. Department of Planning for Drug Development and Clinical Evaluation, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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  • Kei Asayama PhD, MD,

    1. Department of Planning for Drug Development and Clinical Evaluation, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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  • Hirohito Metoki PhD, MD,

    1. Department of Planning for Drug Development and Clinical Evaluation, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
    2. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Graduate School of Medicine
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  • Naomi Fukushima MSc,

    1. Department of Planning for Drug Development and Clinical Evaluation, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
    2. Division of Community Health Nursing, School of Nursing, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan
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  • Ayumi Kurimoto MSc,

    1. Division of Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences
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  • Yoshitaka Tsubono PhD, MD,

    1. School of Public Policy, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
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  • Yutaka Imai PhD, MD

    1. Department of Planning for Drug Development and Clinical Evaluation, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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Address correspondence to Megumi Tsubota-Utsugi, Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes Project, Nutritional Epidemiology Program, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Toyama 1-23-1, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8636, Japan. E-mail: mutsugky@nih.go.jp

Abstract

Objectives

To determine the characteristics of health behaviors related to higher-level functional decline in older community-dwelling adults.

Design

Prospective.

Setting

Ohasama Town, Japan.

Participants

One thousand fifty residents (mean age: 67.5) free of functional decline at baseline.

Measurements

Health behaviors including smoking status, alcohol consumption, frequency of exercise, sleep duration, dietary habits (supplement use, breakfast, late-night snacking, eating regularly, and eating out), and self-rated health were obtained from a self-administered questionnaire at baseline. Higher-level functional decline was examined using the subscales of the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence.

Results

During the 7-year follow-up, 27.5% of eligible participants reported decline in higher-level functional capacity. After adjustment for putative confounding factors, health behaviors that were significant predictors for declines in higher-level functional capacity at the 7-year follow-up were current smoking (odds ratio (OR) = 1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06–2.36), sleep duration of 9 hours or longer (OR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.49–3.11), and poor self-rated health (OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.40–2.67).

Conclusion

Several modifiable health behaviors contribute to higher-level functional decline.

Ancillary