Prevalence of Frailty in Community-Dwelling Older Persons: A Systematic Review
Article first published online: 6 AUG 2012
© 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Volume 60, Issue 8, pages 1487–1492, August 2012
How to Cite
J Am Geriatr Soc 2012.
- Issue published online: 13 AUG 2012
- Article first published online: 6 AUG 2012
To systematically compare and pool the prevalence of frailty, including prefrailty, reported in community-dwelling older people overall and according to sex, age, and definition of frailty used.
Systematic review of the literature using the key words elderly, aged, frailty, prevalence, and epidemiology.
Cross-sectional data from community-based cohorts.
Community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older.
In the studies that were found, frailty and prefrailty were measured according to physical phenotype and broad phenotype, the first defining frailty as a purely physical condition and the second also including psychosocial aspects.
Reported prevalence in the community varies enormously (range 4.0–59.1%). The overall weighted prevalence of frailty was 10.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 10.5–10.9; 21 studies; 61,500 participants). The weighted prevalence was 9.9% for physical frailty (95% CI = 9.6–10.2; 15 studies; 44,894 participants) and 13.6% for the broad phenotype of frailty (95% CI = 13.2–14.0; 8 studies; 24,072 participants) (chi-square (χ2) = 217.7, degrees of freedom (df)=1, P < .001). Prevalence increased with age (χ2 = 6067, df = 1, P < .001) and was higher in women (9.6%, 95% CI = 9.2–10.0%) than in men (5.2%, 95% CI = 4.9–5.5%; χ2 = 298.9 df = 1, P < .001).
Frailty is common in later life, but different operationalization of frailty status results in widely differing prevalence between studies. Improving the comparability of epidemiological and clinical studies constitutes an important step forward.