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Self-Reported Dietary Intake of Potassium, Calcium, and Magnesium and Risk of Dementia in the Japanese: The Hisayama Study

Authors

  • Mio Ozawa MSc,

    1. Department of Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
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  • Toshiharu Ninomiya MD, PhD,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Medicine, and Clinical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
    • Department of Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
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  • Tomoyuki Ohara MD, PhD,

    1. Department of Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
    2. Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
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  • Yoichiro Hirakawa MD,

    1. Department of Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
    2. Department of Medicine, and Clinical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
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  • Yasufumi Doi MD, PhD,

    1. Department of Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
    2. Department of Medicine, and Clinical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
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  • Jun Hata MD, PhD,

    1. Department of Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
    2. Department of Medicine, and Clinical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
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  • Kazuhiro Uchida MSc,

    1. Department of Health Promotion, School of Health and Nutrition Sciences, Nakamura-Gakuen University, Fukuoka, Japan
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  • Tomoko Shirota PhD,

    1. Department of Health Promotion, School of Health and Nutrition Sciences, Nakamura-Gakuen University, Fukuoka, Japan
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  • Takanari Kitazono MD, PhD,

    1. Department of Medicine, and Clinical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
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  • Yutaka Kiyohara MD, PhD

    1. Department of Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
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Address correspondence to Toshiharu Ninomiya, Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3–1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812–8582, Japan. E-mail: nino@intmed2.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp

Abstract

Objectives

To investigate whether higher intake of potassium, calcium, and magnesium reduces the risk of incident dementia.

Design

Prospective cohort study.

Setting

The Hisayama Study, in Japan.

Participants

One thousand eighty-one community-dwelling Japanese individuals without dementia aged 60 and older.

Measurements

A 70-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess potassium, calcium, and magnesium intakes. Hazard ratios (HRs) for the development of all-cause dementia and its subtypes were estimated using Cox proportional hazards model.

Results

During a 17-year follow-up, 303 participants experienced all-cause dementia; of these, 98 had vascular dementia (VaD), and 166 had Alzheimer's disease (AD). The multivariable-adjusted HRs for the development of all-cause dementia were 0.52 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30–0.91), 0.64 (95% CI = 0.41–1.00), and 0.63 (95% CI = 0.40–1.01) for the highest quartiles of potassium, calcium, and magnesium intake, respectively, compared with the corresponding lowest quartiles. Similarly, the HRs for the development of VaD were 0.20 (95% CI = 0.07–0.56), 0.24 (95% CI = 0.11–0.53), and 0.26 (95% CI = 0.11–0.61) for the highest quartiles of potassium, calcium, and magnesium intake, respectively. There was no evidence of a linear association between these mineral intakes and the risk of AD.

Conclusion

Higher self-reported dietary intakes of potassium, calcium, and magnesium reduce the risk of all-cause dementia, especially VaD, in the general Japanese population.

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