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Predictors of prenatal and postnatal parenting efficacy were examined in a sample of 115 primiparous mothers and 73 fathers in an effort to examine the association between preexisting parental characteristics and prenatal efficacy and the association between prenatal characteristics and postnatal efficacy when aspects of the current parenting context are taken into account. The most robust predictors of maternal postnatal efficacy included both prenatal efficacy, which significantly predicted postnatal efficacy independent of all other predictors including the current parenting context, and perceived infant temperamental reactivity as both a main effect and as buffered by social support. This was not the case for fathers, whose postnatal efficacy was primarily a function of their amount of involvement in parenting tasks and social support. The differential predictors of mother and father efficacy as well as their implications for future research are discussed.