Newborn infants preferentially orient to familiar over unfamiliar speech sounds. They are also better at remembering unfamiliar speech sounds for short periods of time if learning and retention occur after a feed than before. It is unknown whether short-term memory for speech is enhanced when the sound is familiar (versus unfamiliar) and, if so, whether the effect is further enhanced by feeding. We used a two-factorial design and randomized infants to one of four groups: prefeed-unfamiliar, prefeed-familiar, postfeed-unfamiliar, and postfeed-familiar. Memory for either familiar or unfamiliar speech (the infant's mother saying “baby” versus a female stranger saying “beagle”) was assessed using head turning to sound in an habituation–recovery paradigm and a retention delay of 85 sec either before or after a typical milk feed. Memory for the familiar speech–voice was enhanced relative to the unfamiliar speech–voice, expressed by significantly less head turning toward the habituated sound stimulus when it was re-presented after the delay. Memory for familiar or unfamiliar speech was not significantly enhanced from pre- to postfeeding, nor was there a significant interaction. This is the first demonstration in newborns that familiarity enhances short-term memory for speech–voice sound.