This comparative analysis of gender differences in time use among adolescents uses surveys from five developing countries and is motivated by an interest in gender role socialization and gendered patterns of behavior during adolescence. Exploring differences in work (both noneconomic household work and labor market work) and leisure time among adolescents according to school enrollment status, we examine the implications of school enrollment for adolescent development. Consistent differences in time use patterns exist between students and nonstudents across a range of settings. Students spend many fewer hours than nonstudents in work activities and the type of work they do is primarily domestic. Although females carry a heavier workload and enjoy less leisure time than males during their adolescent years regardless of enrollment status, the distribution of their time and the types of activities they participate in are much more similar to their male peers when they are students.