The Joint Development of Traditional Bullying and Victimization With Cyber Bullying and Victimization in Adolescence

Authors


  • This longitudinal study was supported by a grant from The Foundation for Research in Science and Technology to the first author. We thank Jo Kleeb for input in measure design and methodology; the school principals for allowing us to access students in their schools; and the adolescents for their continued willing participation.

Requests for reprints should be sent to Paul E. Jose, School of Psychology, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington, New Zealand 6012. E-mail: paul.jose@vuw.ac.nz

Abstract

The present study investigated the stabilities of and interrelationships among traditional (i.e., face-to-face) bullying, traditional victimhood, cyber bullying, and cyber victimhood among adolescents over time. About 1,700 adolescents aged 11–16 years at Time 1 self-reported levels of both bullying and victimization in four contexts (in school, outside of school, texting, and on-line) annually for 2 years. Results indicated that all four dynamics were moderately stable over time. The following variables were found to bidirectionally reinforce and predict each other over time: traditional bullying and traditional victimization; traditional bullying and cyber bullying; and traditional victimization and cyber victimization. These results indicate that bullying and victimhood in both face-to-face and cyber-based interactions are related but not identical interpersonal dynamics.

Ancillary