The Joint Development of Traditional Bullying and Victimization With Cyber Bullying and Victimization in Adolescence


  • This longitudinal study was supported by a grant from The Foundation for Research in Science and Technology to the first author. We thank Jo Kleeb for input in measure design and methodology; the school principals for allowing us to access students in their schools; and the adolescents for their continued willing participation.

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The present study investigated the stabilities of and interrelationships among traditional (i.e., face-to-face) bullying, traditional victimhood, cyber bullying, and cyber victimhood among adolescents over time. About 1,700 adolescents aged 11–16 years at Time 1 self-reported levels of both bullying and victimization in four contexts (in school, outside of school, texting, and on-line) annually for 2 years. Results indicated that all four dynamics were moderately stable over time. The following variables were found to bidirectionally reinforce and predict each other over time: traditional bullying and traditional victimization; traditional bullying and cyber bullying; and traditional victimization and cyber victimization. These results indicate that bullying and victimhood in both face-to-face and cyber-based interactions are related but not identical interpersonal dynamics.