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Community and Individual Factors Associated With Cigarette Smoking Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men


  • The project described was supported by Grant Number R01DA015638 from the National Institute on Drug Abuse. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institute on Drug Abuse or the National Institutes of Health. The authors would like to thank Suzanne Wenzel for her intellectual contributions to the formulation of the present study. Special thanks to Judith Grout and Eve Holloway for their assistance with manuscript preparation.

Requests for reprints should be sent to Ian W. Holloway, University of Southern California School of Social Work, Montgomery Ross Fisher Building-MRF, 669 West 34th Street, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0411. E-mail:


Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) have higher rates of cigarette smoking than their heterosexual counterparts, yet few studies have examined factors associated with cigarette smoking among YMSM. The present study sought to understand how different types of gay community connection (i.e., gay community identification and involvement, gay bar or club attendance) were associated with smoking among YMSM recruited through venue-based sampling in Los Angeles, California (N = 526). Structural equation modeling was used to isolate direct and indirect effects of gay community connection on smoking through cognitive and psychological mediators (i.e., psychological distress, health values, internalized homophobia). Findings indicate YMSM cigarette smoking prevention and intervention must be tailored to address the direct and indirect influences of the gay community.