Purpose: In contemporary implant dentistry, bone mineral density (BMD) of the jaws is a patient-associated prognostic factor. The aim of this study was to compare the mandibular body BMD of dentate and edentulous patients using the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) technique.
Materials and Methods: A total of 39 patients, 20 dentate and 19 edentulous, were included in this cross-sectional study. Mandibular body BMD was measured using the DXA technique. The variables were normally distributed; thus, the independent samples t-test was used for the determination of statistical significance between the dentate and edentulous groups (age, body mass index [BMI], DXA). Chi-square test was performed for identification of the gender differences between the groups. The Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationship between age, BMI, and mandibular body BMD. Note that p < 0.01 was accepted as the significance level.
Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the dentate and edentulous groups in matching variables (age, BMI, and gender) (p > 0.01). There was a statistically significant difference regarding the mandibular body BMD in the dentate and edentulous group (p < 0.01) controlling for age, gender, and BMI. The edentulous group patients had higher mandibular body BMD values (1.27 ± 0.31 g/cm2) than those in the dentate group (0.94 ± 0.22 g/cm2).
Conclusion: Comparison of the mandibular body BMD revealed that dentate patients had less dense bone than the edentulous patients. Further investigations are needed to determine the BMD of the jaws in different regions and for different systemic conditions.