Partial rostral hemimandibulectomy was performed in 10 adult dogs. The temporomandibular joints (TMJs) were examined radiographically and tomographically before surgery, and mandibular stability was evaluated before and immediately after surgery. Radiographic, tomographic, and hemimandibular mobility assessments were made again at months 3 and 6. The TMJs were examined grossly and histologically in five dogs euthanatized at month 3 and in five dogs euthanatized at month 6. Statistically significant hemimandibular instability (p < 0.05) persisted in all subjects throughout the study. The radiographic appearance of the joints remained unaltered; however, space asymmetry was identified in postoperative tomograms of three dogs at month 3 and four dogs at month 6. The TMJs were grossly normal at necropsy. Histologically, there were degenerative changes in articular cartilage and subchondral bone in all of the joints. The authors conclude that partial rostral hemimandibulectomy causes TMJ degeneration, as a consequence of hemimandibular instability or abnormal loading, or both.