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The effects on femoral remodeling of medullary reaming and insertion of a porous endopros-thesis in uncemented hip arthroplasty (UHA) were measured. A unilateral hip hemiarthroplasty (HA) was performed in 12 dogs, with six dogs receiving full-sized and six dogs receiving undersized femoral endoprostheses. A prosthetic head and neck, or acetabular cup, was not implanted. A control group of six dogs underwent femoral head and neck excision (FHNE) only. All dogs were killed 4 weeks after the surgical procedure. Porosity, vascularity, and bone formation were quantified in each femur of the dogs that had been operated on and in each femur of two unoperated dogs. Full-sized did not differ from undersized HA bones in vascularity, porosity, or bone formation. Femurs in which hemiarthroplasties had been performed (full-sized and undersized) had a three-fold increase in porosity, vascularity, and bone formation compared to the contralateral and the FHNE femurs. Changes in porosity and vascularity were greatest (p < .05) at the metaphyseal level and in the medial and caudal quadrants. There was a strong correlation (R2 0.77 to 0.93, and p − .0001) between the increase in porosity and vascularity. These results support the hypothesis that medullary reaming followed by uncemented prosthetic stem implantation contribute to remodeling of the proximal portion of the femur after UHA.