Effects of Thiopental, Ketamine, Diazepam, Xylazine, and Nitrous Oxide on EEG Spike Activity and Convulsive Behavior During Enflurane Anesthesia in Atropinized Cats Effect of Increasing Inhalant Concentrations


Department of Veterinary Surgery, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Kitasato University, Towada-shi, Aomori 034, Japan.


The effects of thiopental, ketamine, diazepam, xylazine, and nitrous oxide, and the combinations of thiopental-nitrous oxide and ketamine-nitrous oxide, on both enflurane-induced electroencephalographic (EEG) spike activity and convulsive behavior were measured quantitatively in atropinized cats receiving enflurane with controlled ventilation. Pretreatments with thiopental, ketamine, and diazepam reduced both EEG spike frequency and amplitude at 2.5% to 4.5% inspired enflurane but did not abolish spike activity. Nitrous oxide (66% of inspired gas) did not significantly alter spike frequency or amplitude during 2.5% to 4.5% inspired enflurane, but the combination of thiopental-nitrous oxide or ketamine-nitrous oxide reduced EEG spike activity during 2.5% inspired enflurane. Enflurane-induced convulsive score was markedly suppressed by thiopental and ketamine and was significantly reduced by diazepam, xylazine and nitrous oxide. The combinations of thiopental-nitrous oxide and ketamine-nitrous oxide greatly reduced behavioral-convulsive responses induced by 2.5% to 4.5% inspired enflurane.